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Page 1

SILICON BASED

PHOTONIC CRYSTAL LIGHT SOURCES

A DISSERTATION

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES

OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Maria Makarova

March 2010

Page 2

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/us/



















This dissertation is online at: http://purl.stanford.edu/tw516vz7992

© 2010 by Maria Olegovna Makarova. All Rights Reserved.

Re-distributed by Stanford University under license with the author.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-
Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

ii

Page 51

CHAPTER 4. FABRICATION 34

Figure 4.2: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of PC (a=350nm) cavity
made in high-porosity pSi by methods A (a) and B (b), and made in low-porosity
pSi by method A before oxidation (c) (image at 45◦) and after oxidization (d). The
insert in (b) shows the pores imaged in the center of the cavity.

Page 52

CHAPTER 4. FABRICATION 35

and B in high-porosity pSi are shown in Fig. 4.2 (a) and (b) respectively. Figures

4.2 (c) and (d) show SEM images of PC cavity fabricated in low-porosity pSi by

method A before and after oxidation. Image in Fig. 4.2 (c) was taken at 45◦. The

structures shown in the �gure have periodicity of 350nm. In addition, structures with

periodicities of 300 and 500nm were also fabricated successfully. The quality of the

structures varies depending of the fabrication, and di�erences between the methods

are discussed next.

The sizes of the holes are di�erent on the samples shown in Fig. 4.2, because

they depend on the e-beam exposure level and the substrate characteristics. Thus

holes of the desired size could be produced by either method by controlling e-beam

exposure level and the original e-beam pattern. The slight ellipticity of the holes can

be attributed to some astigmatism in the e-beam. Rounder holes can be made if more

care is taken to stigmate and focus the beam before writing the patterns.

One of the major di�erences between the structures is the etch depth. The depth

was estimated by looking at SEM images taken at 45◦ of 2x2 µm pits. The pits

were de�ned by e-beam lithography on all the samples along with PCs. The wall

pro�les appear to be vertical from SEM images. The etch times used for each sample

were optimized to achieve maximum depth. Method A produced depth of 325nm in

low-porosity pSi, and 400nm in high-porosity pSi, while method B produced depth

of 1680nm. Larger etch depth is desirable for PC structures because it lowers the

e�ective refractive index of the substrate layer and thereby increases the photonic

bandgap and reduces mixing of the TE-like and TM-like modes.

Approach A is attractive because of its simplicity, but highly porous Si layer causes

charging during e-beam writing due to its poor conductivity and makes it di�cult

to write a pattern with high precision. To alleviate the charging problem we wrote

e-beam patterns on lower porosity pSi that was subsequently oxidized to make it

luminescent. The holes of PC shrink considerably during oxidation as can be seen

from Fig. 4.2(c)(d). The etch rate of pSi is comparable to PMMA etch rate using the

speci�ed chemistry and only PC structures with low aspect ratios can be made. With

Approach B, where anodization and PC fabrication steps are reversed it is possible to

use oxide as a mask and create much deeper structures. The only concern with this

Page 102

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