Download Security of Public Water Supplies PDF

TitleSecurity of Public Water Supplies
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size13.9 MB
Total Pages252
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Security of Public Water Supplies

Page 2

NATO Science Series

A Series presenting the results of activities sponsored by the NATO Science
Committee. The Series is published by lOS Press and Kluwer Academic
Publishers, in conjunction with the NATO Scientific Affairs Division.

A. Life Sciences
B. Physics
C. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
D. Behavioural and Social Sciences
E. Applied Sciences
F. Computer and Systems Sciences

1. DisarmamentTechnologies
2. Environmental Security
3. High Technology
4. Science and Technology Policy
5. Computer Networking

NATO-PCO-DATA BASE

lOS Press
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Kluwer Academic Publishers
lOS Press

Kluwer Academic Publishers
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Kluwer Academic Publishers
lOS Press
lOS Press

The NATO Science Series continues the series of books published formerly in the NATO ASI
Series. An electronic index to the NATO ASI Series provides full bibliographical references (with
keywords and/or abstracts) to more than 50000 contributions from internatonal scientists publish-
ed in all sections of the NATO ASI Series.
Access to the NATO-PCO-DATA BASE is possible via CD-ROM "NATO-PCO-DATA BASE" with
user-friendly retrieval software in English, French and German (WTV GmbH and DATAWARE
Technologies Inc. 1989).

The CD-ROM of the NATO ASI Series can be ordered from: PCO, Overijse, Belgium

2. Environmental Security - Vol. 66

Page 126

T
ab

le
2

.
T

he
o

cc
U

IT
en

ce
s

o
f a

rs
en

ic
i

n
dr

in
ki

ng
w

at
er

in
v

ar
io

us
p

ar
ts

o
f t

he
w

or
ld



L
oc

at
io

n
A

rs
en

ic
i

n
W

at
er


S

pe
ci

es
R

at
io

o
f

A
rs

en
ic

in
B

io
lo

gi
ca

l
E

xp
os

ed


~
I
I
I
~
A!

~:
Vl


S
am

l!
le

s
PO

l!u
la

tio
n

W
es

t
B

en
ga

l,
In

di
a

50
-3

,7
00


A

pp
ro

x.
1

33
2-

2,
11

6
(u

ri
ne

)
80

0,
00

0
C

al
cu

tta
, I

nd
ia

"
2-

35
.0

00


0.
07

-1
9

na


>
7

,0
00


S

ou
th

er
n

T
ha

ila
nd


4.

8-
58

3
<

0.
09


U

p
to

3
.1

(
ha

ir
)

na


U
p

to
5

6
(n

ai
l)


T

ai
w

an


U
p

to
1

,8
29


2.

6
56

.4
±

13
.6

(
ur

in
e)


10

0,
00

0
0.

4I
tO

.2
4

(h
ai

r)


0.
7I

tO
.3

4
(n

ai
l)



O
bu

as
i,

G
ha

na
'

<
2-

17
5

>1


4-
11

2
(u

ri
ne

)
na


S

ou
th

w
es

t F
in

la
nd


17

-9
80


na


3-

50
0

(u
ri

ne
)

na


H
un

ga
ry


U

p
to

3
30


na


U

p
to

3
(h

ai
r)


>

25
,0

00


A
nt

of
ag

as
ta

, C
hi

le
"

U
p

to
8

00


na


9.
2

(h
ai

r)


>
25

0,
00

0
28

.6
(

na
il

)
L

ag
un

er
a,

M
ex

ic
o

8-
94

9
A

s(
V

),


na


>
40

0,
00

0
pr

ed
om

in
an

t
(
>
5
0
~
)


C
or

do
ba

,
A

rg
en

tin
a

18
.7

-3
,8

10


na


na


2,
75

0,
00

0

E
as

te
r

D
om

e,
A

la
sk

a,


1-
4,

78
1

na


6-
1,

09
0

(u
ri

ne
)

na


U
.S

.A
.

F
ai

rb
an

ks
.

A
la

sk
a,


U

p
to

1
0,

00
0

0.
03

-0
.6

4
20

(
ur

in
e)


na


U

.S
.A

.
I

(h
ai

r)


4
(n

ai
l)


O

re
lo

n,
U

.S
.A

.
0-

2,
15

0
D

B


10
-3

60
(

bl
oo

d)


na


L
as

se
n

C
ou

nt
y,


10

0-
1,

40
0

na


<
0.

01
-2

(
ha

ir
)

na


C
al

if
or

ni
a,

U
.S

.A
.

N
or

th
ea

st
er

n
O

hi
o,


<

1-
96


A

pp
ro

lt
l

na


na


U
.S

.A
.

N
ot

e:


A
rs

en
ic

c
on

ce
nt

ra
tio

ns
i

n
w

al
er

,
ur

in
e,

a
nd

b
lo

od
a

re
i

n
~
;
a

rs
en

ic
c

on
ce

nt
ra

tio
ns

in
h

ai
r

an
d

na
il

in
~
g


na
=

n
ot

a
va

ila
bl

e

R
ef

er
en

ce
s

C
ha

tte
rj

ee
e

t
al

.
(1

99
5)


C

ha
tte

rj
ee

e
t

al
. (

19
93

)
W

ill
ia

m
s

et
a

l.
(1

99
6)



C
he

n
et

a
l.

(1
99

4)


C
he

n
et

a
l.

(1
99

5)


L
in

a
nd

H
ua

ng
(

19
98

)
T

se
n

l (
19

77
)

S
m

ed
le

ye
t a

l.
(1

99
6)


K

ur
tti

o
et

a
l.

(1
99

8)


B
oy

zs
on

yi
e

t
al

.
(1

99
2)


B

or
go

no
e

t
al

. (
19

77
)

H
op

en
ha

yn
-R

ic
h

et
a

l.
(1

99
6)


D

el
R

am
e

t a
l.

(1
99

0)


N
ic

ol
li

et
a

l.
(1

98
9)


H

op
en

ha
yn

-R
ic

h
et

a
l.

(1
99

6)


K
re

is
s

et
a

l.
(1

98
3)



H
ar

ri
ng

to
n

et
a

l.
(1

97
8)



W
ba

na
er

e
t

aI
. (

19
77

)
G

ol
ds

m
ith

e
t

al
. (

19
72

)

M
at

is
ot

re
t

al
.

(1
98

2)


S
ou

rc
e

w
at

er
:

"c
on

ta
m

in
at

ed
a

ro
un

d
w

at
er

b
y

di
sc

ha
ra

e
o

f i
nd

us
tr

ia
l

em
ue

nt
;

'c
on

ta
m

in
at

ed
a

ro
un

d
w

at
er

b
y

go
ld

-m
in

in
g;

"
ri

ve
r

w
at

er
;

ot
he

r
ca

se
s

-
ar

ou
nd

w
at

er


co
nt

ai
ni

ng
n

at
ur

al
ly

o
cc

ur
ri

ng
a

rs
en

ic


.- .- \0

Page 127

120

Table 3. Arsenic in gro\Uld water and surface water supplies of the United States (from
Reid, 1994)

As Concentration (J.IfIL) Systems Number Population Exposed, Thousands
~cent! (percent!

GROUND WATER SUPPLIES

>2 12,440 (18) 8,955 (12)
>5 4,921 (7) 3,725 (5)
>10 2,060(3) 1,669 (2)
>20 745 (1) 581 (0.8)
Total 69,491 (100) 76,371 (100)

SURFACE WATER SUPPLIES
.1 2,017 (32) 49,645 (32)
>2 1,091 (17) 27,140 (17)
>5 368 (6) 8,917 (6)
>10 128 (2) 2,694 (2)
>20 37 (0.5) 632 (0.4)
Total 6,380 (100) 155,383 (100)

Trace Metals in Rainwater

Industrial areas in many developing cO\Ultries are expanding rapidly. In many cases,
notably in Africa, the rate of expansion far outstrips the ability of local municipalities to
provide amenities, especially drinking water. Many residents are thus forced to rely on
rainwater as a source of drinking water. This is also true in most villages and periurban
areas where commlUlal water supply does not exist. Worldwide, we estimate the
number of people that use rainwater for drinking and cooking purposes either always or
frequently/occasionally to be over one billion.

Urban sprawl in the developing cO\Ultries is generally attended by high levels of air
pollution. Common air pollutants include oxides of sulfur and nitrogen, nitrogen, toxic
metals, organic compo\Ulds and particulate matter. The pollutants are removed from the
atmosphere by dry deposition and/or rainfall. The rainfall and washout of dry deposited
material on corrugated iron sheets or similar roofing material is channeled by metallic
drains and downspouts into a tank, a dug well and various types of metal or plastic
containers.

Besides being impregnated with airborne toxic metals, rainwater has properties that
make it aggressive to metallic objects. The low pH (often <5.6) increases the leaching
of metals from aerosols and the corrosion potential towards metallic roofing, collection
and storage materials. The low alkalinity and buffering capacity, as well as high
dissolved oxygen, also increase the corrosivity of rainwater. A number of studies have
indeed reported high concentrations of trace metals in rainwater in various parts of the
world (Galloway et al., 1982). Typical concentrations reported for trace metals in urban
rainfall include: 0.5-3 J18IL As, 0.2-2 J18IL Cd, 1-10 Ilg/L Cu, 3-25 Ilg/L Pb and 2-30

Page 251

250

filtration, 6, 8, 66, 67, 108, 145, 146 see
banlrside filtration
fluouscence, 108, 153, 154, ISS, 161
flushing, 132, 135,175, 176, 177, 178, 187

G
GeIMS, 152, 166
groundwater, 4 .. 7, 14, 18,27,29,54,116,

118, 119, 138, 142, 143, 154, 156, 159,
163,164,165,167,195,226

H
hazardoussub~ces,86,94
health effects, 51, 124, 125
Hungary, 9, 19,27,101,104, lOS, 106,

119,142,143.166,183.184,185,189,
191, 192, 193

I
indicators, 1,5,6, 7,8, 163
Integrated Monitoring, 107, 110
instrument (international), 29, 30, 31, 33,

34
international co-operation, 11 22, 33

L
lead, 7,11,17,45,56,65,117,121,122,

123,124,125,126,127,131,132,133,
134, 135, 136, 196

Lead and Copper Rule, 57, 123, 124, 127
lead and copper violations, 6
lipid regulators, 226, 228, 234
long term monitoring, 168, 184

M
maximum contaminant level (MCL), 52,

54,55,57,58,183,
maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG),

54,55,57,123,125
metabolite, 226, 234
microbial (microbiological) quality, 169,

176,187,188,199,201,202
microbiological safety, 57, 184, 187, 188,

189, 191
micropollutants, 74, 137, 138, 141, 142,

143, 148, 151, 153, 159

milestone, 8
models, 16, 17,56,74,86,96,97,203,

204,210,211
monitoring, 23, 25, 71, 72, 73,76, 78, 79,

80,82,94,95,96, 106, 107, 108, 110,
112, 177, 178

monitoring the chlorine residual, 245
Moselle River, 112
multiple barrier concept, 170, 171

N
National Primary Drinking Water

Regulations (NPDWR), 57
non-polar organic compounds, 159, 160,

166, 168

o
Office of Research and Development

(ORD), 60, 62, 68, 69
Ohio River, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 100
organics, 62, 79, 82, 94,137,138,142,

147, 150, lSI, 159, 160, 161, 166, 167,
187

organohalogenated compounds, 161, 163
ORSANCO, 93, 94, 95
outbr~,21,31,32,67, 169, 170, 171,

185, 186, 189, 190, 193
oxidation,67,118,121

photo-, 138, 147

p

PAJfs, 137,142, 152, 153, 154, 196
pathogenic agents, 69,169,178,180,188
pharmaceuticals, 225,227,229,230,235.

236,239
poison, 240, 242
polar compounds, 137, 138, 139, 141,146,

148, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 159, 160,
161,225,236

pollution control, 23, 32, 94, 101, 102,
105, 106, 132, 138,

privatization of water resources, 117, 184,
284

Principal International Alert Centres
(pIAC), 101, 102, 103, 104, 105
protection of the catchment area, 46
public education, 123
Public Utility Leases, 218, 219

Page 252

R
rapid detection method for bacteria, 214
recycling supernatant, 172
regrowth (bacterial), 66,199,207,214
risk assessment, 51,55,56,59,60,62
risk management, 23, 51,55,60,61,62
role of reservoirs, 212

s
sabotage, 239
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 51, 52,

57,68
security, 11, 12,13,14,18,19,20,21,239,

245
sensors, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112
small (water) systems, 66, 67, 68,184,177,

178
source water protection, 66, 67, 68, 177,

178, 184
spill modeling system, 96, 99
spill warning system, 91, 94
spills, 90, 91. 92, 93, 95, 96, 138
stability of the disinfectant residual, 208
stagnation, 122, 174,185, 187
storage tank, 18,68,94,105,116,174,

175,176
surface waters, 67, 76, 77, 116, 118, 137,

142,143,173,225,232,233,234,236,

T
Total Coliform Rule, 57
toxic metals, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122,

124, 125, 127
treatment process, 21,27,66, 170, 171
treatment technology, 64,66,142
trihalomethane s (THM's), 56, 57,163,172,

197, 198,211

u
upgrading,3,35,193

v
volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, 161,

251

w
wastewater, 32, 66, 68, 69, 78, 171, 177,

226,227,230,236
water-borne (related) diseases, 11, 12,22,

31,33" 34, 62, 66,176
water works, 76, 77, 78, 83, 186, 187, 191
wet weather flow, 64,66, 67
World Health Organization (WHO), 1,2,3,

10,11,12,20,22,23,24,25,26,27,
124,125,137,155,184,185,242

Similer Documents