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TitleScience of Societal Safety: Living at Times of Risks and Disasters
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Table of Contents
Part I: Human Societies and Societal Safety Sciences
	Chapter 1: What Do Societal Safety Sciences Aim at?
		1.1 Is the Unexpected and the Unpredictable on the Steady Increase in the Twenty-First Century?
			1.1.1 Unexpected Accidents
			1.1.2 Unexpected Accidents and Societal Safety
		1.2 Alleviating and Living with Disasters?
			1.2.1 Purpose of Societal Safety Sciences
			1.2.2 Hazards, Incidents, Accidents, and Disasters
			1.2.3 Reducing and Coping with Risks?
		1.3 Building Safe and Secure Society Together
			1.3.1 Events That Threaten Human and Examining Them
			1.3.2 Societal Safety Sciences as a Field of Synthetic Science
			1.3.3 Methodologies and Problems with Societal Safety Sciences
	Chapter 2: Advancement in Science and Technology and Human Societies
		2.1 Advancement in Science and Technology and Changes in Human Societies
			2.1.1 Human History and Transition of Population
			2.1.2 Background of Population Increase During Early Stages of Industrial Revolution and Its Historical Meaning
			2.1.3 Problems We Face in the Modern Society
		2.2 Birth of Megacities and High-Speed Mass Transportation
			2.2.1 Modern Societies and Megacities
			2.2.2 Transportation Systems That Support Modern Societies
			2.2.3 Disasters and Vulnerability of Megacities
		2.3 ICT, AI, and the Modern Society
			2.3.1 Development of ICT and Highly Advanced Information Society
			2.3.2 Information Security in the Information Society
			2.3.3 AI and Safety and Security in Human Society
	Chapter 3: Contemporary Societies and Risk
		3.1 How People Cope with Risks in Contemporary Societies
			3.1.1 Risk Perception by Human
			3.1.2 Significance of Risk Perception for Resolving Social Problems
			3.1.3 Contemporary Societies and Mass Media
		3.2 Evaluation and Measures Against Risks in Contemporary Societies
			3.2.1 Purpose of Risk Evaluation
			3.2.2 Understanding Disasters
			3.2.3 Difference in Evaluations of Natural and Social Disaster Risks
			3.2.4 Discussion on Global Risk
	Chapter 4: Modern Societies and Establishment of Scholarship
		4.1 Human Societies and the Start of Scholarship
			4.1.1 Origin of Scholarship
			4.1.2 Decline of Scholarship in the West and Its Development in the Arabic Regions
			4.1.3 Birth of Universities and the Twelfth-Century Renaissance
		4.2 Birth of Modern Science
			4.2.1 Pioneers of Modern Science
			4.2.2 Birth of Academic Societies and Specialized Fields
		4.3 Advancement of Scholarship and Specialization
		4.4 Births of Safety Engineering, Disaster Science, and Risk Analysis
Part II: Events That Threaten Human and Its Societies
	Chapter 5: Human, Nature, and Artificial Products
		5.1 Environment That Surrounds Human and Societies
		5.2 Hazards in Natural and Social Environments
		5.3 Development of Hazards into Accidents and Disasters
		5.4 Risks for Evaluating Accidents and Disasters
		5.5 Problems That Are Common to Accidents and Disasters
	Chapter 6: Natural Disasters
		6.1 History of Natural Disasters in the Japanese Islands
			6.1.1 Disaster Environments of Japan
			6.1.2 Natural Disasters Up to the Mid-eighteenth Century (End of Edo Era)
			6.1.3 Natural Disasters in the Mid-eighteenth Century (Meiji Era) and After
			6.1.4 Changes in Disasters Caused by Changes in Social Environment
		6.2 Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
			6.2.1 Mechanisms of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
			6.2.2 Earthquake Disasters and Their Transition
			6.2.3 Predicting and Countering Earthquake Damages
			6.2.4 Volcanic Eruptions and Their Transition
			6.2.5 Predicting and Countering Volcanic Eruptions
		6.3 Ground and Sediment Disasters
			6.3.1 Types of Ground Disasters and Mechanisms of Their Occurrences
			6.3.2 Types of Sediment Disasters and Mechanisms of Their Occurrences
			6.3.3 Ground and Sediment Disasters
			6.3.4 Preparations for Preventing Ground and Sediment Disasters, Measurement, and Monitoring
		6.4 Hydrosphere Disasters
			6.4.1 Mechanisms
			6.4.2 Scenes of Damages
			6.4.3 Damage Mitigation
	Chapter 7: Social Disasters and Damages
		7.1 Social Disasters and Damages
			7.1.1 Accidents with Infrastructures
			7.1.2 Accidents with Industrial Products
			7.1.3 Automobile Accidents
			7.1.4 Drug Toxicity and Safety in Medical Care
		7.2 Human Errors and Accidents
			7.2.1 Hazardous Human Errors
			7.2.2 Human Errors and Accidents
			7.2.3 Human Errors and Accident Prevention
		7.3 History of Major Social Disasters and Their Countermeasures
			7.3.1 History of Social Disasters and Accidents
			7.3.2 Overview at Major Measures Against Social Disaster
	Chapter 8: Environmental Risks
		8.1 Change in Biological System and Risk of Infection
			8.1.1 Accidents with Infrastructures Spread of Plague in Medieval Europe Dengue Fever Front Moving North with Warming and Increased Risk of Infection
			8.1.2 Changes in Lifestyle and Risks of Infection Worldwide Spread of Cholera in the Nineteenth Century Once a National Disease for Japan, Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS Continues to Spread
			8.1.3 Risks of Pandemic with Infection to New Influenza and Alike
		8.2 Risks of Climate Changes and Their Countermeasures
			8.2.1 Risk of Climate Changes
			8.2.2 International Actions Toward Climate Change Risks
		8.3 Environmental Risks and Their Countermeasures
			8.3.1 Environmental Risks of Chemical Substances
			8.3.2 Higher Concerns over Environmental Risks and Changes in Countermeasures
			8.3.3 Managing Environmental Risks
			8.3.4 Problems in Environmental Risk Management of Chemical Substances
	Chapter 9: War, Crimes, and Terrorism
		9.1 War, Crimes, Terrorism, and Societal Safety Sciences
		9.2 War, Its Damages and Causes
		9.3 Damages from Crimes
			9.3.1 World Comparison of Crimes
			9.3.2 Trend of Crimes in Japan
		9.4 Terrorism
			9.4.1 Trend of Terrorism
			9.4.2 Changes with Terrorism
			9.4.3 Measures for Terrorism Prevention: Case of the United Kingdom
			9.4.4 Current State of Terrorism Prevention in Japan and Problems
Part III: Risk Analysis and Management
	Chapter 10: Methods in Risk Analysis
		10.1 Evaluation and Probabilities of Risks
		10.2 Analysis and Forecast Models of Risks
		10.3 Decision-Making for Risk Minimization
	Chapter 11: Risk Management
		11.1 What Is Risk Management?
			11.1.1 Nature of Risk Management
			11.1.2 Concept of Risk
			11.1.3 Elements of Risk
			11.1.4 Process of Risk Management
			11.1.5 Establishing the Context
		11.2 Risk Assessment
			11.2.1 Risk Assessment
			11.2.2 Risk Identification
			11.2.3 Risk Analysis and Evaluation
		11.3 Risk Treatment
		11.4 Executing Risk Management
			11.4.1 Communication: Sharing Understanding about Risk Treatment
			11.4.2 Coordination: Organizational Structure of Risk Management
	Chapter 12: Risk Communication and Disaster Information
		12.1 Risk Communication
			12.1.1 What Is Risk Communication?
			12.1.2 What Information to Provide with Risk Communication
			12.1.3 Roles of the Sender and Receiver of Risk Communication
			12.1.4 Risk Communication of Societal Risk and Personal Risk
		12.2 Disaster Information
			12.2.1 Importance of Disaster Information
			12.2.2 Transferring Emergency Information
			12.2.3 Transferring Reconstruction Information
			12.2.4 Information for Awareness and Promotion
		12.3 Disaster Education
			12.3.1 Transition of Concept of Learning and Disaster Education in Need
			12.3.2 Disaster Education as an Opportunity for Mutual Communication
			12.3.3 Importance of Sharing the Meaning of Disaster Management
	Chapter 13: Crisis Management
		13.1 What Is Crisis Management?
			13.1.1 Meaning of Crisis
			13.1.2 Significance of Crisis Management
			13.1.3 Relation Between Risk Management and Crisis Management
			13.1.4 Fink´s Crisis Management Theory
		13.2 Crisis Management of the Administration
			13.2.1 Origin of Crisis Management: Cuban Missile Crisis
			13.2.2 Crisis Management by the Japanese Government
			13.2.3 USA that Learned Its Lesson: Summary of Disaster Crisis Management
		13.3 Crisis Management of Corporations
Part IV: Social Mechanisms for Disaster Management
	Chapter 14: Public Systems for Disaster Management
		14.1 Societal Safety and Legal System
			14.1.1 What Is Law? System of Law
			14.1.2 Corporations and Societal Safety
			14.1.3 Central and Local Governments and Societal Safety
		14.2 Administrative System and Societal Safety
			14.2.1 Concept of Nation and Societal Safety: Watchman State and Welfare State
			14.2.2 Societal Safety and Administrative Offices Police and Administration Self-Defense and Administration Natural Disasters and Administration in Japan Advancement of Scientific Technology and Administration Health Maintenance and Administration in Japan Traffic and Administration Consumers and Administration
		14.3 Standardization and Standards
			14.3.1 Value and Convenience of Standardization What Is Standardization? Value of Standardization and Problems
			14.3.2 International Standards: Organization and Activities of ISO International Standards and International Standardization Organizations Organization and Activities of ISO National Standards of Japan
		14.4 Design Standards for Structures and Systems for Securing Safety
			14.4.1 Design Standards for Structures
			14.4.2 Introduction of Performance-Based Design and Qualification/Certification of Engineers
			14.4.3 Nonconformance of Existing Structures and Fraud by Engineers
	Chapter 15: Government Systems for Disaster Management
		15.1 Disaster Management Activities by the Government
			15.1.1 Maintenance and Management of Infrastructures
			15.1.2 Government Plans of Disaster Management in Japan
			15.1.3 Researches on Disaster Management
		15.2 Public Systems for Societal Safety
			15.2.1 Accident Investigation Significance and Purpose of Accident Investigation Types of Accident Investigation History of Accident Investigation Permanent Accident Investigation Organizations in Japan
			15.2.2 Public Health Systems Establishment of Public Health Systems Definition of Public Health Public Health in Japan Health Center Operations as Defined in Community Health Act
			15.2.3 Establishment of Emergency Lifesaving System History of Emergency Medical System in Japan Base Hospital upon Disasters and Formation of Medical Teams
		15.3 Local Government and Societal Safety
			15.3.1 Safety Securing Duties of Local Governments
			15.3.2 System for Securing Safety by Local Governments
			15.3.3 Local Governments and Emergency Drills
	Chapter 16: Systems for Disaster Management in the Private Sector
		16.1 Natural Disasters and Nonprofit Organizations
			16.1.1 Disaster Relief and Nonprofit Organizations
			16.1.2 Disaster Recovery and Rise of Social Business
		16.2 Accident Prevention Activities by Companies
			16.2.1 Accident Prevention Activities
			16.2.2 Safety Management
			16.2.3 Labor Safety and Health
		16.3 BCP and Crisis Management
			16.3.1 Internal Control Systems for Corporations and Crisis Management
			16.3.2 Crisis Management and BCP
			16.3.3 BCPs in Japan and Their Future
		16.4 Market Economy-Based Disaster Management Activities
			16.4.1 Insurance System History of Insurance Systems and Their Structure Disaster Management Functions with Insurances
			16.4.2 Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors History of Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors Outline of Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors
		Major Insurance Brokers
	Chapter 17: Supporting Disaster Victims
		17.1 Suffering Damages
			17.1.1 Effects on Disaster Victims
			17.1.2 Effects on the Psychology of Disaster Victims
		17.2 Systems for Victim Support
			17.2.1 Legal Systems to Support Disaster Victims in Japan
			17.2.2 Public Systems to Support Disaster Victims in Japan
			17.2.3 Caring for the Minds in Disaster Victim Support
		17.3 Being a Victim
			17.3.1 Effects on Disaster Victims
			17.3.2 Legal Systems for Supporting Criminal Victims in Japan
			17.3.3 Public Systems for Criminal Victim Support in Japan
			17.3.4 Psychological Care for Supporting Victims
Part V: For Advancement of Societal Safety Sciences
	Chapter 18: Governance and Forming Agreement for Societal Safety
		18.1 For Governance of Societal Risk
			18.1.1 What Is Risk Governance?
			18.1.2 HLW in Need of Governance
		18.2 Trade-Offs About Societal Risks
			18.2.1 Dilemma with Risk Governance
			18.2.2 Risks and Their Trade-Offs
			18.2.3 Dilemma of Distributing Cost of Diverse Risks
		18.3 Forming Agreements for Risk Governance
			18.3.1 Movement of Citizen Engagement in Public Plans
			18.3.2 Difficulty in NIMBY-Type Risk Governance
			18.3.3 For Risk Governance
	Chapter 19: For Deepening of Societal Safety Sciences
		19.1 Evolving Natural Disasters
		19.2 Advancing Societal Safety Sciences to Precede Phenomena
		19.3 Challenges of Societal Safety Sciences to Accomplish Safe and Secure Societies

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