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TitleScience of Societal Safety: Living at Times of Risks and Disasters
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Table of Contents
                            Preface
Contents
Contributors
Abbreviations
Part I: Human Societies and Societal Safety Sciences
	Chapter 1: What Do Societal Safety Sciences Aim at?
		1.1 Is the Unexpected and the Unpredictable on the Steady Increase in the Twenty-First Century?
			1.1.1 Unexpected Accidents
			1.1.2 Unexpected Accidents and Societal Safety
		1.2 Alleviating and Living with Disasters?
			1.2.1 Purpose of Societal Safety Sciences
			1.2.2 Hazards, Incidents, Accidents, and Disasters
			1.2.3 Reducing and Coping with Risks?
		1.3 Building Safe and Secure Society Together
			1.3.1 Events That Threaten Human and Examining Them
			1.3.2 Societal Safety Sciences as a Field of Synthetic Science
			1.3.3 Methodologies and Problems with Societal Safety Sciences
		References
	Chapter 2: Advancement in Science and Technology and Human Societies
		2.1 Advancement in Science and Technology and Changes in Human Societies
			2.1.1 Human History and Transition of Population
			2.1.2 Background of Population Increase During Early Stages of Industrial Revolution and Its Historical Meaning
			2.1.3 Problems We Face in the Modern Society
		2.2 Birth of Megacities and High-Speed Mass Transportation
			2.2.1 Modern Societies and Megacities
			2.2.2 Transportation Systems That Support Modern Societies
			2.2.3 Disasters and Vulnerability of Megacities
		2.3 ICT, AI, and the Modern Society
			2.3.1 Development of ICT and Highly Advanced Information Society
			2.3.2 Information Security in the Information Society
			2.3.3 AI and Safety and Security in Human Society
		References
	Chapter 3: Contemporary Societies and Risk
		3.1 How People Cope with Risks in Contemporary Societies
			3.1.1 Risk Perception by Human
			3.1.2 Significance of Risk Perception for Resolving Social Problems
			3.1.3 Contemporary Societies and Mass Media
		3.2 Evaluation and Measures Against Risks in Contemporary Societies
			3.2.1 Purpose of Risk Evaluation
			3.2.2 Understanding Disasters
			3.2.3 Difference in Evaluations of Natural and Social Disaster Risks
			3.2.4 Discussion on Global Risk
		References
	Chapter 4: Modern Societies and Establishment of Scholarship
		4.1 Human Societies and the Start of Scholarship
			4.1.1 Origin of Scholarship
			4.1.2 Decline of Scholarship in the West and Its Development in the Arabic Regions
			4.1.3 Birth of Universities and the Twelfth-Century Renaissance
		4.2 Birth of Modern Science
			4.2.1 Pioneers of Modern Science
			4.2.2 Birth of Academic Societies and Specialized Fields
		4.3 Advancement of Scholarship and Specialization
		4.4 Births of Safety Engineering, Disaster Science, and Risk Analysis
		References
Part II: Events That Threaten Human and Its Societies
	Chapter 5: Human, Nature, and Artificial Products
		5.1 Environment That Surrounds Human and Societies
		5.2 Hazards in Natural and Social Environments
		5.3 Development of Hazards into Accidents and Disasters
		5.4 Risks for Evaluating Accidents and Disasters
		5.5 Problems That Are Common to Accidents and Disasters
		References
	Chapter 6: Natural Disasters
		6.1 History of Natural Disasters in the Japanese Islands
			6.1.1 Disaster Environments of Japan
			6.1.2 Natural Disasters Up to the Mid-eighteenth Century (End of Edo Era)
			6.1.3 Natural Disasters in the Mid-eighteenth Century (Meiji Era) and After
			6.1.4 Changes in Disasters Caused by Changes in Social Environment
		6.2 Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
			6.2.1 Mechanisms of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
			6.2.2 Earthquake Disasters and Their Transition
			6.2.3 Predicting and Countering Earthquake Damages
			6.2.4 Volcanic Eruptions and Their Transition
			6.2.5 Predicting and Countering Volcanic Eruptions
		6.3 Ground and Sediment Disasters
			6.3.1 Types of Ground Disasters and Mechanisms of Their Occurrences
			6.3.2 Types of Sediment Disasters and Mechanisms of Their Occurrences
			6.3.3 Ground and Sediment Disasters
			6.3.4 Preparations for Preventing Ground and Sediment Disasters, Measurement, and Monitoring
		6.4 Hydrosphere Disasters
			6.4.1 Mechanisms
			6.4.2 Scenes of Damages
			6.4.3 Damage Mitigation
		References
	Chapter 7: Social Disasters and Damages
		7.1 Social Disasters and Damages
			7.1.1 Accidents with Infrastructures
			7.1.2 Accidents with Industrial Products
			7.1.3 Automobile Accidents
			7.1.4 Drug Toxicity and Safety in Medical Care
		7.2 Human Errors and Accidents
			7.2.1 Hazardous Human Errors
			7.2.2 Human Errors and Accidents
			7.2.3 Human Errors and Accident Prevention
		7.3 History of Major Social Disasters and Their Countermeasures
			7.3.1 History of Social Disasters and Accidents
			7.3.2 Overview at Major Measures Against Social Disaster
		References
	Chapter 8: Environmental Risks
		8.1 Change in Biological System and Risk of Infection
			8.1.1 Accidents with Infrastructures
				8.1.1.1 Spread of Plague in Medieval Europe
				8.1.1.2 Dengue Fever Front Moving North with Warming and Increased Risk of Infection
			8.1.2 Changes in Lifestyle and Risks of Infection
				8.1.2.1 Worldwide Spread of Cholera in the Nineteenth Century
				8.1.2.2 Once a National Disease for Japan, Tuberculosis
				8.1.2.3 HIV/AIDS Continues to Spread
			8.1.3 Risks of Pandemic with Infection to New Influenza and Alike
		8.2 Risks of Climate Changes and Their Countermeasures
			8.2.1 Risk of Climate Changes
			8.2.2 International Actions Toward Climate Change Risks
		8.3 Environmental Risks and Their Countermeasures
			8.3.1 Environmental Risks of Chemical Substances
			8.3.2 Higher Concerns over Environmental Risks and Changes in Countermeasures
			8.3.3 Managing Environmental Risks
			8.3.4 Problems in Environmental Risk Management of Chemical Substances
		References
	Chapter 9: War, Crimes, and Terrorism
		9.1 War, Crimes, Terrorism, and Societal Safety Sciences
		9.2 War, Its Damages and Causes
		9.3 Damages from Crimes
			9.3.1 World Comparison of Crimes
			9.3.2 Trend of Crimes in Japan
		9.4 Terrorism
			9.4.1 Trend of Terrorism
			9.4.2 Changes with Terrorism
			9.4.3 Measures for Terrorism Prevention: Case of the United Kingdom
			9.4.4 Current State of Terrorism Prevention in Japan and Problems
		References
Part III: Risk Analysis and Management
	Chapter 10: Methods in Risk Analysis
		10.1 Evaluation and Probabilities of Risks
		10.2 Analysis and Forecast Models of Risks
		10.3 Decision-Making for Risk Minimization
	Chapter 11: Risk Management
		11.1 What Is Risk Management?
			11.1.1 Nature of Risk Management
			11.1.2 Concept of Risk
			11.1.3 Elements of Risk
			11.1.4 Process of Risk Management
			11.1.5 Establishing the Context
		11.2 Risk Assessment
			11.2.1 Risk Assessment
			11.2.2 Risk Identification
			11.2.3 Risk Analysis and Evaluation
		11.3 Risk Treatment
		11.4 Executing Risk Management
			11.4.1 Communication: Sharing Understanding about Risk Treatment
			11.4.2 Coordination: Organizational Structure of Risk Management
		References
	Chapter 12: Risk Communication and Disaster Information
		12.1 Risk Communication
			12.1.1 What Is Risk Communication?
			12.1.2 What Information to Provide with Risk Communication
			12.1.3 Roles of the Sender and Receiver of Risk Communication
			12.1.4 Risk Communication of Societal Risk and Personal Risk
		12.2 Disaster Information
			12.2.1 Importance of Disaster Information
			12.2.2 Transferring Emergency Information
			12.2.3 Transferring Reconstruction Information
			12.2.4 Information for Awareness and Promotion
		12.3 Disaster Education
			12.3.1 Transition of Concept of Learning and Disaster Education in Need
			12.3.2 Disaster Education as an Opportunity for Mutual Communication
			12.3.3 Importance of Sharing the Meaning of Disaster Management
		References
	Chapter 13: Crisis Management
		13.1 What Is Crisis Management?
			13.1.1 Meaning of Crisis
			13.1.2 Significance of Crisis Management
			13.1.3 Relation Between Risk Management and Crisis Management
			13.1.4 Fink´s Crisis Management Theory
		13.2 Crisis Management of the Administration
			13.2.1 Origin of Crisis Management: Cuban Missile Crisis
			13.2.2 Crisis Management by the Japanese Government
			13.2.3 USA that Learned Its Lesson: Summary of Disaster Crisis Management
		13.3 Crisis Management of Corporations
		References
Part IV: Social Mechanisms for Disaster Management
	Chapter 14: Public Systems for Disaster Management
		14.1 Societal Safety and Legal System
			14.1.1 What Is Law? System of Law
			14.1.2 Corporations and Societal Safety
			14.1.3 Central and Local Governments and Societal Safety
		14.2 Administrative System and Societal Safety
			14.2.1 Concept of Nation and Societal Safety: Watchman State and Welfare State
			14.2.2 Societal Safety and Administrative Offices
				14.2.2.1 Police and Administration
				14.2.2.2 Self-Defense and Administration
				14.2.2.3 Natural Disasters and Administration in Japan
				14.2.2.4 Advancement of Scientific Technology and Administration
				14.2.2.5 Health Maintenance and Administration in Japan
				14.2.2.6 Traffic and Administration
				14.2.2.7 Consumers and Administration
		14.3 Standardization and Standards
			14.3.1 Value and Convenience of Standardization
				14.3.1.1 What Is Standardization?
				14.3.1.2 Value of Standardization and Problems
			14.3.2 International Standards: Organization and Activities of ISO
				14.3.2.1 International Standards and International Standardization Organizations
				14.3.2.2 Organization and Activities of ISO
				14.3.2.3 National Standards of Japan
		14.4 Design Standards for Structures and Systems for Securing Safety
			14.4.1 Design Standards for Structures
			14.4.2 Introduction of Performance-Based Design and Qualification/Certification of Engineers
			14.4.3 Nonconformance of Existing Structures and Fraud by Engineers
		References
	Chapter 15: Government Systems for Disaster Management
		15.1 Disaster Management Activities by the Government
			15.1.1 Maintenance and Management of Infrastructures
			15.1.2 Government Plans of Disaster Management in Japan
			15.1.3 Researches on Disaster Management
		15.2 Public Systems for Societal Safety
			15.2.1 Accident Investigation
				15.2.1.1 Significance and Purpose of Accident Investigation
				15.2.1.2 Types of Accident Investigation
				15.2.1.3 History of Accident Investigation
				15.2.1.4 Permanent Accident Investigation Organizations in Japan
			15.2.2 Public Health Systems
				15.2.2.1 Establishment of Public Health Systems
				15.2.2.2 Definition of Public Health
				15.2.2.3 Public Health in Japan
				15.2.2.4 Health Center Operations as Defined in Community Health Act
			15.2.3 Establishment of Emergency Lifesaving System
				15.2.3.1 History of Emergency Medical System in Japan
				15.2.3.2 Base Hospital upon Disasters and Formation of Medical Teams
		15.3 Local Government and Societal Safety
			15.3.1 Safety Securing Duties of Local Governments
			15.3.2 System for Securing Safety by Local Governments
			15.3.3 Local Governments and Emergency Drills
		References
	Chapter 16: Systems for Disaster Management in the Private Sector
		16.1 Natural Disasters and Nonprofit Organizations
			16.1.1 Disaster Relief and Nonprofit Organizations
			16.1.2 Disaster Recovery and Rise of Social Business
		16.2 Accident Prevention Activities by Companies
			16.2.1 Accident Prevention Activities
			16.2.2 Safety Management
			16.2.3 Labor Safety and Health
		16.3 BCP and Crisis Management
			16.3.1 Internal Control Systems for Corporations and Crisis Management
			16.3.2 Crisis Management and BCP
			16.3.3 BCPs in Japan and Their Future
		16.4 Market Economy-Based Disaster Management Activities
			16.4.1 Insurance System
				16.4.1.1 History of Insurance Systems and Their Structure
				16.4.1.2 Disaster Management Functions with Insurances
			16.4.2 Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors
				16.4.2.1 History of Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors
				16.4.2.2 Outline of Disaster Management Activities by Other Private Sectors
		References
		Major Insurance Brokers
	Chapter 17: Supporting Disaster Victims
		17.1 Suffering Damages
			17.1.1 Effects on Disaster Victims
			17.1.2 Effects on the Psychology of Disaster Victims
		17.2 Systems for Victim Support
			17.2.1 Legal Systems to Support Disaster Victims in Japan
			17.2.2 Public Systems to Support Disaster Victims in Japan
			17.2.3 Caring for the Minds in Disaster Victim Support
		17.3 Being a Victim
			17.3.1 Effects on Disaster Victims
			17.3.2 Legal Systems for Supporting Criminal Victims in Japan
			17.3.3 Public Systems for Criminal Victim Support in Japan
			17.3.4 Psychological Care for Supporting Victims
		References
Part V: For Advancement of Societal Safety Sciences
	Chapter 18: Governance and Forming Agreement for Societal Safety
		18.1 For Governance of Societal Risk
			18.1.1 What Is Risk Governance?
			18.1.2 HLW in Need of Governance
		18.2 Trade-Offs About Societal Risks
			18.2.1 Dilemma with Risk Governance
			18.2.2 Risks and Their Trade-Offs
			18.2.3 Dilemma of Distributing Cost of Diverse Risks
		18.3 Forming Agreements for Risk Governance
			18.3.1 Movement of Citizen Engagement in Public Plans
			18.3.2 Difficulty in NIMBY-Type Risk Governance
			18.3.3 For Risk Governance
		References
	Chapter 19: For Deepening of Societal Safety Sciences
		19.1 Evolving Natural Disasters
		19.2 Advancing Societal Safety Sciences to Precede Phenomena
		19.3 Challenges of Societal Safety Sciences to Accomplish Safe and Secure Societies
		References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Science of
Societal Safety

Seiji Abe
Mamoru Ozawa
Yoshiaki Kawata Editors

Living at Times of Risks and Disasters

Trust: Interdisciplinary Perspectives 2

Page 2

Trust: Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Volume 2

Page 114

country and are working on the grounds, are turning into terrorists. They are the
so-called homegrown terrorists. The second change is the frequent emergence of
terrorists called lone wolves that single-handedly plan terror attacks based on
information from the Internet and without organizational connections with terrorist
groups. The third change is the terror targets that used to be large political events or
significant facilities. Recently concerts, events, local assemblies, and restaurants
with less security are turning into targets of attacks. They are called soft targets.

The December 2015 San Bernardino attack was a typical example of such
changes. The target was a training and banquet event for employees of San
Bernardino County Department of Public Health. Of the about 80 employees
there, 14 died from random shooting. Syed Rizwan Farook, one of the perpetrators,
was an employee at the department. His parents were immigrants from Pakistan but
Farook, born in the United States, had American citizenship. The other perpetrator,
Farook’s wife Tashfeen Malik, was born in Pakistan, met Farook through the
Internet, married Farook, and immigrated to the United States in 2014. The married
couple had no criminal records and were not on the Terrorist Screening Database.

This type of terror attack is a big threat to local communities. The communities
have to face the threat that a neighbor may 1 day turn to them as a terrorist. Bracing
against these terror attacks will take, whether one likes it or not, local community
involvement.

Federal, state, and county police forces will have to work with the communities as
well. In this case, securing and explaining police authority is also a concern. For
example, in September 2015, a 14-year-old high school student in the State of Texas,
who was a Muslim, was arrested for the suspicion of being a terrorist and taken into
custody. The student had put together a clock from loose parts and brought it to
school. The clock resembled a bomb, and the school called in local police who
arrested the student. Later the student was released without charges. An influential
blogger learned about the incident through news and opened a form for people to
send messages. President Obama, at the time, invited the student to Astronomy
Night at White House. The student’s family filed some suits but were all dismissed.
This case is an indication that it is not just terrorism but also acts of terror attack
prevention that can cause serious confrontation in local communities.

9.4.3 Measures for Terrorism Prevention: Case of the United
Kingdom

The problem of homegrown terrorists is not just for the United States. The Canadian
daily newspaper The Telegram reported that the number of foreigners that moved to
Syria and Iraq to become Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) soldiers was
about 27,000–31,000 during the years 2011–2016. Among them, about 6000 were
born in European and American countries (Kirk 2016). As of July 2017, ISIL has

106 S. Nagamatsu

Page 115

significantly lost its power, so the number of young people that head toward Syria
must have greatly dropped; however, the trend of training terrorists across borders
will probably continue.

The United Kingdom has started a program Channel, since 2012, to prevent its
people from being drawn into terrorism. Channel is a program to identify individuals
with risks of turning radical, evaluate the risk with a checklist, and provide support to
prevent the individuals from entering terror actions. At the frontline of this program
are about 70,000 local teachers, public health workers, and doctors who have gone
through proper training to identify individuals with the potential of turning radical. A
program like Channel, seen from its outline, is a different approach from allowing
public authorities, like the police, to interfere with local communities. It rather places
terrorism prevention along the line of local medicine, local community service, and
social education to accomplish a safe community. The approach seems even in line
with local disaster prevention. Some evaluate the method highly saying it has
dramatically reduced the number of young people moving out to Syria; however,
some others not so highly saying the drop is simply a result of ISIL losing its power,
and the program itself is not so effective. Some point out that the Channel method
merely identifies individuals with risks of turning radical following a manual and
that it is far apart from ideal social connotation. In either case, without doubts, the
method is symptomatic and has no solution of dealing with the fundamental factor
leading to terrorism, that is, minorities bearing negative feelings toward the society
where they are isolated and discriminated. How to accept minorities in the society
and encompassing them within appears to be public service issues; however, they are
equally important in terrorism prevention. Earlier, we discussed that weaker human
relations in the communities are causing increase in crimes, and the same applies to
the background of terrorism.

9.4.4 Current State of Terrorism Prevention in Japan
and Problems

As we discussed above, Japan has its own share of terrorism concerns. A 2013
al-Qaeda linked terror attack in Algeria, took hostages, and killed 40 including
10 Japanese. It was the reality that overseas terrorism can target Japanese.
Al-Qaeda and ISIL have repeatedly announced Japan as a target for terror attacks,
and people in some international terrorist organizations have been in and out of the
country. With the summer Olympics coming up in 2020 in Tokyo, the threat of
terrorism is going up every year in Japan.

Under these circumstances, prevention of organized crimes like terrorism must
take international cooperation. The United Nations Convention against Transna-
tional Organized Crime (TOC treaty) turned effective in 2003. This agreement

9 War, Crimes, and Terrorism 107

Page 227

Humanities, 11, 43
Hurricane, 22, 147
Hydrosphere, 67, 68

I
Incident, 7, 51
Individual accident, 6
Industrial accident, 53, 189
Industrial revolution, 17, 18, 44
Infection, 87, 88
Information and communication technology

(ICT), 22
Information security, 23
Insurance, 49, 193
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(IPCC), 91
International Organization for Standardization

(ISO), 8, 27, 160, 162
Inundation, 68, 69
I-shaped, 44

J
Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB), 175

L
Labor accident, 6
Labor safety, 158, 188
Labor Standards Act, 90, 190, 194
Landslide, 65
Life insurance, 193

M
Maintenance, 9, 161, 170
Maintenance management, 171
Mass media, 30
Media scrum, 30
Medical accident, 78, 79
Mind slip, 80

N
Nankai trough, 58, 217
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB),

174
Natural disaster, 4, 6–8, 31, 57, 58, 136, 217,

218
Non-profit organization (NPO), 30, 187
Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), 6, 50, 129, 159,

164

O
Organizational accident, 6, 84
Organized crime, 100, 107

P
Pandemic, 50, 89, 91, 192
Π(Pi)-shaped, 44
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 199, 204
Probability, 114, 117
Psychological recovery, 197
Public health, 156, 159, 176, 177

R
Reconstruction, 133, 134, 187, 200
Recovery and reconstruction, 10, 198
Resilience, 74, 122, 143, 148, 172
Risk analysis, 126, 191, 210
Risk assessment, 8, 52, 125
Risk communication, 127, 129, 131, 132, 147
Risk evaluation, 32, 95, 96, 126
Risk governance, 29, 209, 214
Risk management, 54, 121, 122, 124, 125, 143
Risk perception, 28, 29
Risk society, 31
Risk space, 54
Risk trade-off, 211

S
Safety-I, 84
Safety-II, 84, 85
Safety engineering, 10, 44, 121, 122, 142
Sediment disaster, 50, 65, 66
Seismic capacity, 62
Social disaster, 7, 21, 32, 33, 83, 84, 138
Societal risk, 132, 209, 211
Societal safety, 5, 9, 10, 45, 155
Societal safety science, 4, 44, 142, 221
Space shuttle, 51, 84
Standard deviation, 118
Standardization, 161, 162
Standards, 29, 31, 52, 121, 154, 160–162, 164
Storm surge, 60, 69, 92

T
Terrorism, 99, 100, 104, 107
Three Mile Island (TMI), 50, 122
Traffic accident, 4, 5
Transport accident, 4, 5
Traumatic event, 199

226 Index

Page 228

T-shaped, 44
Tsunami, 58, 66, 69, 135
Typhoon, 67, 69, 158, 186

U
Unexpected accident, 3
Urbanization, 159

V
Victim support, 203, 204
Volcano eruption, 61, 63, 122
Volunteer, 186
Vulnerability, 32, 33, 60, 218

W
Watchman state, 156
World Health Organization (WHO), 4, 52, 90

Index 227

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