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TitleSAES Q 007 Machine Foundation
File Size78.7 KB
Total Pages21
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Previous Issue: 27 February, 2002 Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008
Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Page 1 of 21
Primary contact: A.K. Mohammed on 873-2653

Engineering Standard
SAES-Q-007 29 October, 2003
Foundations and Supporting
Structures for Heavy Machinery
Onshore Structures Standards Committee Members
Baldwin, C.C., Chairman
Abu-Adas, H.A.
Al-Ismail, A.A.
Al-Marhoon, S.A.
Al-Saleh, L.A.
Al-Sheref, K.M.
Al-Utaibi, A.S.
Cookson, R.A.
Grosch, J.J.
Hemler, S.R.
Henry, M.P.
Kim, S.U.
Mohammed, A.K.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................. 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations................................ 2
3 References..................................................... 3
4 Definitions...................................................... 5
5 Design Requirements.................................... 7
6 Stiffness Requirements................................ 13
7 Allowable Eccentricities
for Concrete Foundations
with Horizontal Shaft Machinery........... 15
8 Soil Bearing Pressures, Pile Capacities
and Settlements.................................... 16
9 Loads and Forces......................................... 17
10 Permissible Frequency Ratios...................... 19
11 Permissible Vibration.................................... 20
12 Drawing Information..................................... 20

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SAES-Q-007
Issue Date: 29 October, 2003 Foundations and Supporting
Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008 Structures for Heavy Machinery

Page 2 of 21

1 Scope

1.1 This standard covers mandatory requirements governing the design of
foundations and support structures for heavy machinery.

It pertains to foundation and support structure designs governed by dynamic
loadings due to machinery vibrations. Foundations and support structures
designed for machinery vibrations must also be capable of withstanding all other
loadings to which they may be subjected (wind, piping forces, etc.), with
stresses not exceeding those permitted by the applicable Saudi Aramco

Commentary Note 1.1:

Foundations for reciprocating compressors greater than 150 kilowatts (200 brake
horsepower) and all table-top special purpose equipment shall be dynamically
analyzed. If the analysis predicts a resonance, then the mass of the foundation
should be increased (if possible) to overtune it. Foundations for general purpose
equipment do not generally require specific dynamic or vibration related design,
but it is recommended that these foundations comply with Sections 6.1.2 & 7 of
this standard and PIP REIE686/API RP 686, Chapter 4.

1.2 The basic design objectives as prescribed in this Standard are:

a) The suppression of vibration amplitudes to meet the limits specified in the
applicable Saudi Aramco Standards.

b) The determination of the machine-foundation system natural frequencies
to ensure that the separation margins specified in the applicable Saudi
Armco Rotating Equipment Standards are met for the relevant excitation

c) The provision of sufficient strength and rigidity to maintain equipment
alignment and to prevent failures due to fatigue or overstressing.

d) The provisions for adequate foundation bearing capacity and acceptable

2 Conflicts and Deviations

2.1 Any conflicts between this standard and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Engineering Standards (SAESs), Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs),
Standard Drawings (SASDs), or industry standards, codes, and forms shall be
resolved in writing by the Company or Buyer Representative through the
Manager, Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SAES-Q-007
Issue Date: 29 October, 2003 Foundations and Supporting
Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008 Structures for Heavy Machinery

Page 10 of 21

dynamic forces to be multiplied by a fatigue factor of 1.5 and applied as
quasi-static loads. The loads specified above shall be combined to
produce the most unfavorable effect on the supporting foundation. The
effects of both wind and seismic activity need not be considered to act
simultaneously. Design load combinations may be as specified in ACI

5.1.10 Design shall be such that buried cables, pipes, etc., will not be
incorporated in the foundation, and be protected from the influence of
foundation stresses.

Commentary Note 5.1.10:

Cables and pipes shall be sleeved if incorporation in the foundation
cannot be avoided, e.g., if they are essential to the operation of the
machinery supported from the foundation.

5.1.11 Where practicable, miscellaneous steel structures, such as operator
platforms, shall be independent from the main machinery carrying
structure(s), to avoid operator discomfort. Also, machinery loads shall
be supported directly by the foundations and not by access platforms.

Commentary Note 5.1.11:

Sometimes operator platforms attached to the main supporting
structure can be subject to vibration that causes serious discomfort to
operators. In that case, it is necessary to keep the platforms
independent from the main structure so that vibrations will not be
transmitted to the platform.

5.1.12 The designer should refer to the general guidance given by ISO 2631-1
and ISO 2631-2 on human response to building vibration and
weighting curves of frequency responses for equal annoyance of
humans together with measurement methods to be used. Methods of
quantifying whole-body vibration in relation to human health and
comfort, the probability of vibration perception, and the incidence of
motion sickness are presented in these standards.

5.2 Special Provisions for Reinforced Concrete

5.2.1 The structural design of all reinforced concrete shall be in accordance
with SAES-Q-001, and ACI 318.

5.2.2 The minimum compressive strength of concrete at 28 days shall not be
less than 27.6 MPa (4000 psi).

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SAES-Q-007
Issue Date: 29 October, 2003 Foundations and Supporting
Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008 Structures for Heavy Machinery

Page 11 of 21

Commentary Note 5.2.2:

The minimum compressive strength is what is required by

5.2.3 All faces of concrete shall be reinforced bi-axially. For deformed bars,
the reinforcement in each direction shall not be less than 0.0018 times
the gross area perpendicular to the direction of reinforcement.


In the event that a foundation size greater than 1.20 meters (48 inches)
thick is required for stability, rigidity, or damping, the minimum
reinforcing steel may be as recommended in ACI 207.2R with a
suggested minimum reinforcement of 22 mm (#7) bars at 30
centimeters (12 inches) on center.

Commentary Note 5.2.3:

The required reinforcing steel necessary to resist the internal forces
and moments is relatively small in the majority of block foundations
because of their massive size. Therefore, the minimum quantity of
steel will likely be controlled by the amount of steel necessary to meet
temperature and shrinkage requirements. Although ACI 318 does not
specifically address the required steel in a block foundation, the
requirement of 0.0018 of the cross-sectional area of the concrete may
be used as guidance for the amount of temperature reinforcing steel in
a foundation using grade 60 reinforcing.

5.2.4 Main reinforcement in piers shall not be less than 1% nor more than
8% of the cross-sectional area of the piers. Main reinforcement in
pedestals shall not be less than ½%.

5.2.5 Minimum tie size in piers shall be 12 mm.

5.2.6 Maximum tie spacing in piers shall be the smallest of 8-bar diameters,
24-tie diameters or 1/3 the least dimension of the pier.

5.2.7 Slabs with the thickness of 500 mm or more shall be provided with
shrinkage and temperature reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318.

5.2.8 When foundation thickness is greater than 1200 mm (48 in) thick, the
designer should consult ACI 207.2R and other ACI mass concrete
requirements for concrete mixes and installation.

5.3 Additional Requirements for Foundations for Vertical Pumps

5.3.1 In contrast to the design practice for horizontal shaft machinery,
vertical pumps cannot be considered infinitely rigid. Therefore, to

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SAES-Q-007
Issue Date: 29 October, 2003 Foundations and Supporting
Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008 Structures for Heavy Machinery

Page 20 of 21

3 Calculated maximum vibration velocities comply with Section 11.

Commentary Note 10.3:

Steel structures have a number of frequencies equal to the degrees of freedom
which is for spatial structures almost equal to 6 times the number of nodes (mass
points). For a structure with 100 nodes this will result in almost 600 natural
frequencies. It will be clear that several of these frequencies will inadvertently lie
in the frequency range given in Section 10.1. If one changes the design to move
those frequencies outside the limiting range other frequencies will end up inside
the range. It is therefore accepted that certain frequencies will be inside the
limiting frequency range as long as the designer can provide information that the
associated modal shapes are acceptable as explained in Section 10.3.

11 Permissible Vibration

11.1 Machinery foundations shall be designed in accordance with PIP REIE686
Chapter 4, equipment Manufacturer's recommendations, and published design
procedures and criteria for dynamic analysis. If Manufacturer's vibration criteria
are not available, the maximum velocity of movement during steady-state
normal operation shall be limited to 0.12 inch per second for centrifugal
machines and 0.15 inches per second for reciprocating machines per PIP

11.2 For rocking and torsional mode calculations the vibration velocities shall be
computed with the dynamic forces of the machinery train components assumed
in phase and 180 degrees out of phase.

12 Drawing Information

12.1 In addition to the structural information necessary to construct the foundation,
the drawings must clearly indicate the elevation of the top of the finished
(poured) foundation and the bottom of the soleplate, the locations and type of
the anchor bolts and sleeves, the anchor bolt diameter, the depth of embedment
into the foundation of the anchor bolts, the length of the anchor bolts threads,
and the length of the anchor bolt projections.

Commentary Note 12.1:

The above information should be clearly marked on the drawing in order for it to
be readily identified during the final checks before concrete placement.

12.2 The required 28-day minimum compressive strength of the concrete foundation
and the yield strength of the reinforcing steel shall be clearly specified on the
structural drawings.

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Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures SAES-Q-007
Issue Date: 29 October, 2003 Foundations and Supporting
Next Planned Update: 1 November, 2008 Structures for Heavy Machinery

Page 21 of 21

Commentary Note 12.2:

Not only is this information necessary for construction of the foundation, it may be
necessary in the future to identify the material properties for possible
modifications or investigations of the foundation. Placing this information on the
drawings will permit its permanent retention with the foundation structural details.

12.3 The anchor bolt material shall be specified on the structural drawing.

12.4 The soil bearing capacity shall be specified on the structural drawings.

Revision Summary
29 October, 2003 Revised the "Next Planned Update". Reaffirmed the contents of the document, and

reissued with minor revision.

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