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TitleSacred Webs: The Social Lives and Networks of Minnan Protestants, 1840s–1920s
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.0 MB
Total Pages303
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Acknowledgements
Note on Terms and Spelling
List of Images, Chart and Maps
Introduction
1
Setting the Minnan Stage
Section 1 Displaced Gods and Riceless Christians:
The Processes of Conversion among Minnan Protestants
2
Processing Conversion
3
Converting Costs
Section 2 Movers and Shakers: Mobility and Conflict in
Minnan Protestant Communities
4
Minnan Protestants on the Move
5
Understanding Chinese Protestant Conflicts
6
Networking Conflicts
7
Celebrating Protestant Networks
Section 3 The Liberating Gospel: Xu Chuncao and Spiritual
and Social Activism of Minnan Protestants
8
Incorporating Protestant and Secular Networks
Conclusion
Appendix 1:
Instances of Minnan Protestant Converts Forfeiting their Employment to Join the Church, 1846–1866
Appendix 2:
Index of Chinese Characters
References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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Page 151

137Minnan Protestants On The Move

newsletter published by the LMS, highlights that, in the initial stages, “the
work . . . [was] carried on without any financial aid from the Society [LMS].”80

Secondly, while this was clearly a Chinese affair, it was also a cross-cultural
mission. The expressed goal was to send a team to evangelize the Hakka and
it was thus differentiated from simply sharing the gospel with neighbors or
relatives, or even with other non-Hakkas. As mentioned above, the movement
of the gospel, especially stations related to the LMS, had been westward and
was already bordering the Tingzhou area.81 However, this type of expansion
was not considered as “mission” work by the native Church because it was
basically intracultural and was partially or fully supported with foreign funds.
While this discrepancy may seem on the surface to be mere semantics, hinging
on the presence or absence of the term “missionary,” it is more than this. For,
with this mission to the Hakkas, the early Minnan Church was branching into
a new area, not simply because of geography, but also because of the cultures
involved.

It is interesting to note how LMS missionaries viewed this undertaking by
the Chinese Church. English sources continually highlight the “missionary”
aspect of the organization, describing it as a “native missionary movement,”82
a “Native Missionary Society,”83 or the “Missionary Society of the Native
Church.”84 In fact, a headline in the Chronicle describes the beginning of the
mission by proclaiming “A Native Church Sends Out Foreign Missionaries.”85
The article goes on to refer to Tingzhou as “practically a foreign mission
station.”86 Later, at the end of the century, the Provincial Union voted to collect
funds to build a “mission house” in Tingzhou, though no foreign missionaries
were residing there.87 The formation of this organization was also heralded as a

80 LMS Chronicle (1899), 118. Italics in orginal.
81 Prior to the decision by these Hehui churches to move into Tingzhou, the Minnan

Presbytery had also been involved in what was termed “mission” work among the Hakka
in the Longyan region. This began in 1882, but stopped in 1900. It was considered “mis-
sion” work because it was fully funded and managed by the Chinese churches. However,
the cultural gap seemed to be too large to bridge and the work was handed over to the
Presbyterian work stemming from Shantou. For more on this “domestic missionary soci-
ety,” see RCA Annual Reports of the Board of Foreign Missions (1907), 9.

82 Chinese Recorder (1896), 257.
83 Chinese Recorder (1895), 482.
84 In Chinese, the mission was referred to as 闽西宣道会.
85 LMS Chronicle (1899), 118. Emphasis added.
86 Ibid.
87 Ibid. Here, the Provincial Union is referred to as the “Amoy Union,” which was an English

translation for Hehui. Most English sources seem to continue to refer to the Union using
its original name.

Page 302

Index288

Sheng Jiuchang 223–224, 232
Singapore 1n2, 29, 101–104, 105n, 115–116,

144–145, 221n10, 222–224, 245
Southeast Asia, see Nanyang
spirit tablets 70, 72

See also Ancestral tablets
Stark, Rodney 44, 57, 87, 97n88, 147, 161n59,

193
Stronach, Alexander 30, 35, 36, 64, 83n28
Stronach, John 29n13, 30, 35, 36, 39, 61n41,

68, 82, 151, 153, 161, 170–171, 173n15, 174,
175n24, 176, 178, 182, 189n

Sunday 1, 2n3, 10, 33, 35, 36, 53, 58, 60,
66n61, 68, 80–81, 93, 95–96, 98, 112–113,
140, 142n110, 153, 156, 194, 230
See also Sabbath, services

Sung, John 57, 245–246
Sun Yatsen 218–219, 222, 232, 236, 239,

240n101, 243
superstition 12, 173n15, 192, 253
Sweeten, Richard 79–80, 155, 160n58, 167

Taishan Church 134–135, 142, 143n116, 222
Taiwan 28, 83, 112, 151, 202, 217, 243
Talmage, John Van Nest 30, 32n23, 35n29,

37–38, 42, 45, 52n2, 64n56, 67, 94–95,
123, 128

tangible immateriality 76
taxes 27, 124–125, 149–150, 157, 191
temples 1, 10, 32, 38–39, 52, 61–62, 71, 75,

95–97, 110–112, 154, 157, 160, 176, 178, 186,
188, 189n105, 190–193, 196, 199, 203,
205n, 209, 213, 223, 225

Tiedemann, R.G. 4, 6, 8, 21, 40, 79, 86, 124–125,
147, 154, 155n34 and 36, 160, 169, 182

Tingzhou 112, 135–145, 152, 196, 201, 222
Tongmenghui 221–224, 227–228, 230n, 232,

239
tracts 33, 54, 58, 100, 120–122, 163, 230
traditions/traditional 6–8, 10–11, 14–15, 21,

37, 57–58, 62–63, 65n59, 66, 68–70,
72–73, 76, 97, 110–111, 115, 147, 151, 154,
162, 164, 182, 184, 186, 190, 192–193,
196–197, 210–212, 251, 252n5

Treaty of Nanjing 30, 39
treaty port 24, 29, 39, 46, 109, 225

urban 18, 69, 122, 129n58, 162, 217, 218

violence 147–148, 154, 157–158, 159n53, 169,
183, 187
See also conflict, feuds, jiaoan

Wang Fugui 1–2, 31, 53n8, 71, 76, 80
Wu Tu 32–35, 97
Wu Wanman 33, 97

Xiamen 1, 9, 11, 13, 23–24, 26, 28–31, 32n24,
34–42, 44–46, 51–52, 61, 71, 79, 80n15,
81n19, 82n22, 83, 89, 94–98, 101–105, 109,
115–117, 121, 123, 126–131, 133–134, 135n73,
136, 141–145, 163, 168, 170–171, 174, 175n25,
177, 180–181, 183–184, 186, 188, 194, 201,
203–205, 208, 217, 219, 220–222, 224–232,
234–235, 237–241, 243–247, 249, 253
See also Amoy

Xiamen Construction Guild/Association
231, 240, 242

Xiamen Society to Resist the Japanese and
Save the Nation 244

Xi’an Church 237, 245
Xinhai Revolution see Revolution
Xinjie Church 11, 31–34, 37n40, 46n83, 54,

79–80, 128, 129n54, 202, 219, 234, 237,
245, 253

Xiaoxi 117, 129–130, 158, 191, 200, 204,
206–207

Xu Jiyu 44
Xu Chuncao 171, 176, 215, 217–220, 221n10,

224, 231–232, 237–238, 238n91, 239–248,
250, 252, 253

Xu Shengyan 112, 118n30

yangjiao 17
Ye Hanzhang 37, 56, 128–130, 132, 191,

200–201, 204
Yiban 113, 185, 222

See also Mobing
YMCA 34, 222, 235, 241
Young, William 30, 32, 55, 78
Yuan Shikai 232n61, 236–239, 243
Yu Dingan 29n13, 54, 89, 90n53

Zao jun see Kitchen God
Zhangping 136, 183, 201
Zhangpu 96, 112, 126, 131, 163–164, 177, 226,

247

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