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TitleRules 2017
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Table of Contents
                            Contents
Changelog
Abbreviations
Administrative Regulations
	Competition Overview
		Competition Objective
		Competition Procedure
		Competition Information
	Vehicle Eligibility
		Student Competition
		First Year Vehicles
		[DV only] Second and Third Year Vehicles
	Rules of Conduct
		General Officials Authority
		Official Instructions
		Arguments with Officials
		Unsportsmanlike Conduct
		Violations of Intent
		Questions about the Rules
		Protests
	General Requirements for Teams & Participants
		Teams per University
		Team Members
		Student Status
		Age
		Driver's License
		Insurance
		Liability Waiver
		[EV only] Electrical System Officer (eso)
		[DV only] Autonomous System Responsible (asr)
	Documentation & Deadlines
		Required Documents and Forms
		Submission
		Late Submission or Non-Submission
		Correction Requests
		De-registration
		Vehicle Status Video (vsv)
		SES Approval (sesa)
	General Rules
		Removing the Vehicle from the Site
		Forfeit for Non-Appearance
		Team Briefings
		Testing and Work Safety
		Onsite Working Safety
		Alcohol and Illegal Material
		Vehicle Movement
		[CV only] Engine Running
		Fueling and Oil
General Technical Requirements
	General Design Requirements
		Vehicle Configuration
		Bodywork
		Suspension
		Wheels
		Tires
		Steering
		Wheelbase
		Track and Rollover Stability
	General Chassis Design
		General Requirements
		Definitions
		Minimum Material Requirements
		Alternative Materials
		Composite Structures
		Laminate Testing
		Structural Documentation
		Roll Hoops
		Main Hoop
		Front Hoop
		Main Hoop Bracing
		Front Hoop Bracing
		Mechanically Attached Roll Hoop Bracing
		Front Bulkhead
		Front Bulkhead Support
		Side Impact Structure
		Bolted Primary Structure Attachments
		Impact Attenuator (ia)
		Impact Attenuator Data Requirement
		Impact Attenuator Test Requirements
		Non-Crushable Objects
	Cockpit
		Cockpit Opening
		Cockpit Internal Cross Section
		Percy (95th percentile male)
		Side Tubes
		Driver's Harness Attachment
		Driver's Seat
		Floor Closeout
		Firewall
		Accessibility of Controls
		Driver Visibility
		Driver Egress
	Driver Restraint System
		Definitions
		Belts - General
		Belt, Strap and Harness Installation - General
		Lap Belt Mounting
		Shoulder Harness
		Anti-Submarine Belt Mounting
		Head Restraint
		Roll Bar Padding
		Driver's Leg Protection
	Brake System
		Brake System - General
		Brake Over-Travel Switch (bots)
		Brake Light
	Powertrain
		Transmission and Drive
		Coolant Fluid Limitations
		System Sealing
		Drive Train Shields and Guards
	Aerodynamic Devices
		Definition Aerodynamic Device
		Ground Effect Devices
		Restrictions for Aerodynamic Devices
		Minimum Edge Radii of Aerodynamic Devices
		Aerodynamic Devices Stability and Strength
	Compressed Gas Systems and High Pressure Hydraulics
		Compressed Gas Cylinders and Lines
		High Pressure Hydraulic Pumps and Lines
	Fasteners
		Critical Fasteners
		Securing Fasteners
	Electrical Components
		Low Voltage Batteries
		Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (apps)
		System Critical Signals (scs)
		Inertia Switch
	Vehicle Identification
		Vehicle Number
		University Name
		Timing Equipment
	Vehicle and Driver Equipment
		Pushbar
		Quick Jack
		Driver Equipment
		Fire Extinguishers
		Camera Mounts
Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles
	Internal Combustion Engine Powertrains
		Engine Limitation
		Starter
		Air Intake System
		Throttle
		Mechanical Throttle Actuation
		Electronic Throttle Control (etc)
		Intake System Restrictor
		Turbochargers and Superchargers
		Crankcase / Engine Lubrication Venting
	Fuel and Fuel System
		Fuel
		Fuel Tanks
		Fuel Lines for Low Pressure Systems
		Fuel Injection System Requirements
		Fuel System Location Requirements
		Fuel Tank Filler Neck and Sight Tube
		Tank Filling Requirement
		Venting Systems
	Exhaust System and Noise Control
		Exhaust System General
		Maximum Sound Level
	Electric System and Shutdown System
		Shutdown Circuit
		Master Switch
		Shutdown Buttons
		Voltage Limit for cv
Electric Vehicles
	Electric System Definitions
		High Voltage (hv) and Low Voltage (lv)
		Grounded Low Voltage (glv) and Tractive System
	Electric Powertrain
		Motors
		Power and Voltage Limitation
		Brake System Encoder (bse)
		apps / Brake Pedal Plausibility Check
	Tractive System Energy Storage
		General Definitions
		Allowed Tractive System Accumulators
		Tractive System Accumulator Container – General Requirements
		Tractive System Accumulator Container – Electrical Configuration
		Tractive System Accumulator Container – Mechanical Configuration
		Accumulator Isolation Relays (air)
		Accumulator Management System (ams)
	Tractive System General Requirements
		Separation of Traction System and Grounded Low Voltage System
		Positioning of Tractive System Parts
		Grounding
		Tractive System Measuring point (tsmp)
		Tractive System Insulation, Wiring and Conduit
		hv System Enclosures
		High Voltage Disconnect (hvd)
		Wiring of the Tractive System Supply
		Energy Meter
		Activating the Tractive System
		Ready-To-Drive Sound
		Pre-Charge and Discharge Circuits
		Tractive System Active Light (tsal)
	Shutdown Circuit and Systems
		Shutdown Circuit
		Master Switches
		Shutdown Buttons
		Insulation Monitoring Device (imd)
		Brake System Plausibility Device (bspd)
	Overcurrent Protection
		Overcurrent Protection
	Chargers
		Chargers General Requirements
		Charging Shutdown Circuit
	High Voltage Procedures and Tools
		Working on the Tractive System
		Working on Tractive System Accumulator Containers
		Charging
		Accumulator Container Hand Cart
	Electrical System Form (esf)
		Electrical System Form (esf)
Driverless Vehicles
	Vehicle Requirements and Restrictions
		Base Vehicle
		Wireless Communication
		Data logger
		Remote Emergency System (res)
		Shutdown circuit
	Autonomous System
		Signals
		Autonomous System Master Switch (asms)
		Autonomous System Status Indicator (assi)
		Autonomous System Status Definitions
		Autonomous Mission Indicator (ami)
		Autonomous System Form (asf)
	Emergency Brake System (ebs)
		Technical Requirements
		Functional Safety
		ebs States
		ebs Transitions
		ebs Performance
	Sensors
		Mounting
		Legal & Work Safety
Technical Inspections
	General
		Technical Inspection Objective
		Technical Inspection Process
		General Rules
		Technical Inspection Sticker
		Inspection Responsible Person
		Modifications and Repairs
	Pre-Inspection
		Pre-Inspection Objective
		Pre-Inspection Required Items
	[EV only] Accumulator Inspection
		Accumulator Inspection Objective
		Accumulator Inspection Required Items
	[EV only] Electrical Inspection
		Electrical Inspection Objective
		Electrical Inspection Required Items
	Mechanical Inspection
		Mechanical Inspection Objective
		Mechanical Inspection Tire and Rim Combination
		Mechanical Inspection Required Items
	[DV only] Driverless Inspection
		Driverless Inspection Objective
		Driverless Inspection Required Items
		Driverless Inspection ebs Test
	Tilt Test
		Tilt Test Objective
		Tilt Test Procedure
	Vehicle Weighing
		Vehicle Weighing Objective
		Vehicle Weighing Procedure
	[EV only] Rain Test
		Rain Test Objective an General Definitions
		Rain Test Procedure
	[CV only] Noise Test
		Noise Test Objective
		Noise Test Procedure
	Brake Test
		Brake Test Objective
		Brake Test Procedure
	Post Event Inspection
		Post Event Inspection Objective
		Post Event Inspection Procedure
Static Events
	Business Plan Presentation Event (bpp)
		Business Plan Presentation Objective
		Business Plan Presentation Procedure
		Executive Summary
		Business Plan Presentation Scoring
	Cost and Manufacturing Event
		Cost and Manufacturing Objective
		Cost and Manufacturing Procedure
		Cost Report Documents (crd)
		Bill of Material (bom)
		Costed Bill of Material (cbom)
		Supporting Material File
		Cost Explanation File
		Cost and Manufacturing Vehicle Condition
		Cost and Manufacturing Scoring
	Engineering Design Event
		Engineering Design Objective
		Engineering Design Report (edr)
		Design Spec Sheet (dss)
		Engineering Design Procedure
		Engineering Design Vehicle Condition
		Engineering Design Judging Criteria
		Engineering Design Scoring
	[DV only] Autonomous Design Event
		Autonomous Design Objective
		Autonomous Design General Specifications
		Autonomous Design Report (adr)
		Autonomous Design Presentation
		Autonomous Design Race Review
		Autonomous Design Judging Criteria
		Autonomous Design Scoring
Dynamic Event Regulations
	Dynamic Events General
		Driver Limitations
		Dynamic Area and Dynamic Vests
	Driving Rules
		Flags
		Driving Under Power
		Ground Clearance
		Practice Track
		[DV only] Cones & Markings
		[DV only] Vehicle Break Downs and Usage of ACres
		[DV only] Procedure After Completing a Dynamic Event
	Weather Conditions
		Operating Conditions
		Tires Allowed
	Skidpad Event
		Skidpad Track Layout
		Skidpad Procedure
		[DV only] Skidpad Procedure
		Skidpad Scoring
	Acceleration Event
		Acceleration Track Layout
		Acceleration Procedure
		[DV only] Acceleration Procedure
		Acceleration Scoring
	Autocross Event
		Autocross Track Layout
		Autocross Procedure
		Autocross Scoring
	Endurance and Efficiency Event
		Endurance Track Layout
		Endurance Procedure
		Passing
		Endurance Driver Change Procedure
		Endurance Event Tire Changes
		Endurance Specific Regulations
		Endurance Scoring
		[CV only] Efficiency Scoring
		[EV only] Efficiency Scoring
	[DV only] Trackdrive and Efficiency Event
		Trackdrive Tracklayout
		Trackdrive Procedure
		Trackdrive Course Walk
		Trackdrive Scoring
		Efficiency Scoring
	Dynamic Events Penalties
		General Penalties
		Endurance Penalties
		[CV only] Efficiency Penalties
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Formula Student Rules 2017

CONTENTS

Changelog 3

Abbreviations 5

A Administrative Regulations 7
A1 Competition Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A2 Vehicle Eligibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
A3 Rules of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
A4 General Requirements for Teams & Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A5 Documentation & Deadlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
A6 General Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

T General Technical Requirements 19
T1 General Design Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
T2 General Chassis Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
T3 Cockpit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
T4 Driver Restraint System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
T5 Brake System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
T6 Powertrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
T7 Aerodynamic Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
T8 Compressed Gas Systems and High Pressure Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
T9 Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
T10 Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
T11 Vehicle Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
T12 Vehicle and Driver Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

CV Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles 55
CV1 Internal Combustion Engine Powertrains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
CV2 Fuel and Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
CV3 Exhaust System and Noise Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
CV4 Electric System and Shutdown System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

EV Electric Vehicles 66
EV1 Electric System Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
EV2 Electric Powertrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
EV3 Tractive System Energy Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
EV4 Tractive System General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
EV5 Shutdown Circuit and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
EV6 Overcurrent Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
EV7 Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
EV8 High Voltage Procedures and Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
EV9 Electrical System Form (ESF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 1 of 128

Page 2

Contents

DV Driverless Vehicles 86
DV1 Vehicle Requirements and Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
DV2 Autonomous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
DV3 Emergency Brake System (EBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
DV4 Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

IN Technical Inspections 93
IN1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
IN2 Pre-Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
IN3 [EV ONLY] Accumulator Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
IN4 [EV ONLY] Electrical Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
IN5 Mechanical Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
IN6 [DV ONLY] Driverless Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
IN7 Tilt Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
IN8 Vehicle Weighing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
IN9 [EV ONLY] Rain Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
IN10 [CV ONLY] Noise Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
IN11 Brake Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
IN12 Post Event Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

S Static Events 103
S1 Business Plan Presentation Event (BPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
S2 Cost and Manufacturing Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
S3 Engineering Design Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
S4 [DV ONLY] Autonomous Design Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

D Dynamic Event Regulations 113
D1 Dynamic Events General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
D2 Driving Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
D3 Weather Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
D4 Skidpad Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
D5 Acceleration Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
D6 Autocross Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
D7 Endurance and Efficiency Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
D8 [DV ONLY] Trackdrive and Efficiency Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
D9 Dynamic Events Penalties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 2 of 128

Page 64

CV4 Electric System and Shutdown System

CV4.2 Master Switch

CV4.2.1 The vehicle must be equipped with one master switch.

CV4.2.2 The master switch must disable power from battery and alternator to all electrical circuits,
including lights, fuel pump(s), ignition, electrical controls. The master switch must be direct
acting, i.e. it must not act through a relay or logic.

CV4.2.3 The master switch must be located on the right side of the vehicle, in proximity to the main
hoop, at the 95th percentile male driver’s shoulder height, as defined inT3.3, and be easily
actuated from outside the vehicle.

Master switches must be mounted no lower than the vertical distance of the template’s middle
circle center to the ground surface multiplied by 0.8.

CV4.2.4 The master switches must be a mechanical switch of the rotary type, with a red, removable
handle. The handle must have a width of at least50 mmand must only be removable in
electrically open position.

CV4.2.5 The international electrical symbol consisting of a red spark on a white-edged blue triangle
must be affixed in close proximity to the switch.

CV4.2.6 The master switches must be mounted so that the rotary axis of the key is near horizontal and
across the vehicle. The “ON” position of the switch must be in the horizontal position and
must be marked accordingly. The “OFF” position of the master switch must also be clearly
marked.

CV4.3 Shutdown Buttons

CV4.3.1 Shutdown buttons must be a push-pull or push-rotate mechanical emergency switch where
pushing the button opens the shutdown circuit (CV4.1).

CV4.3.2 One shutdown button serves as a cockpit-mounted shutdown button. The minimum allowed
diameter of the shutdown button in the cockpit is24 mm. The international electrical symbol
consisting of a red spark on a white-edged blue triangle must be affixed in close proximity to
this switch. It must be located to provide easy actuation by the driver in an emergency or
panic situation. It must be located within easy reach of the belted-in driver, alongside the
steering wheel and unobstructed by the steering wheel or any other part of the vehicle.

CV4.3.3 [DV ONLY ] In addition to the cockpit mounted shutdown button, the shutdown circuit of
DV with internal combustion engine must include two emergency shutdown buttons (as for
electric vehicles, see ruleEV5.3 and especiallyEV5.3.4). These and the RES as defined in
DV1.4 have the same functionality as the cockpit-mounted shutdown button, thus opening
the shutdown circuit (see DV1.5 for additional requirements)

CV4.4 Voltage Limit for CV

The maximum permitted voltage between any two electrical connections is60 VDC or
25 VACRMS. The following systems are excluded from this voltage limit:

• High voltage systems for ignition

• High voltage systems for injectors

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 64 of 128

Page 65

CV4 Electric System and Shutdown System

• Voltages internal to OEM charging systems designed for <60 VDC output.

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 65 of 128

Page 127

D9 Dynamic Events Penalties

Tteam is the team’s corrected elapsed time.
Tmax is 1.5 times of the corrected elapsed time of the fastest vehicle.

D8.4.3 An additional ten points are awarded for every completed lap, independent of the corrected
elapsed time. This is also applied for teams that do not finishing the trackdrive i.e. get a
DNF.

D8.5 Efficiency Scoring

D8.5.1 Energy efficiency is measured during the trackdrive event.

D8.5.2 Only vehicles which complete the trackdrive event will receive points for efficiency.

D8.5.3 [EV ONLY] Rules D7.9.2 to D7.9.6 are applied.

D8.5.4 [CV ONLY] Rules D7.8.3 to D7.8.6 and D7.8.9 are applied.

D8.5.5 [CV ONLY] The trackdrive energy is calculated based on following formula:

Eteam =Vteam ·3.55 kWh/l

Vteam is the team’s corrected used fuel volume.

D8.5.6 The team’s efficiency is calculated based on D7.9.7 and D7.9.8.

D 9 DYNAMIC EVENTS PENALTIES

D9.1 General Penalties

D9.1.1 Penalties will not be assessed for accident avoidance or other reasons deemed sufficient by
the officials.

D9.1.2 A cone is DOO if the cone has been knocked over or the entire base of the cone lies outside
the box marked around the cone in its undisturbed position.

D9.1.3 [DV ONLY] Cones that are DOO are not replaced/reset during the run. There will be no
rerun due to cones in the driving path or disorientation due to missing cones.

D9.1.4 The DOO penalty (see D9.1.8) is added for each DOO including entry and exit gate cones
before the start and after the finish line, that occur on that particular run.

D9.1.5 [DV ONLY] The DOO penalty for any cone is applied for any Lap in which a cone isDOO
(e.g. if a cone was hit in Lap 7, the DOO penalty is applied for laps 7-10)

D9.1.6 Off-course (OC)

• An OC occurs when the vehicle has all four wheels outside the course boundary as
indicated by edge marking.

• Missing one or more gates of a given slalom at autocross or endurance is counted as
one OC per occurrence.

• When an OC occurs, the driver must re-enter the track at the next possible point.

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 127 of 128

Page 128

D9 Dynamic Events Penalties

• When re-entering the driver needs to wait for a gap and follow the instructions of the
track marshals.

D9.1.7 [DV ONLY] An Unsafe Stop (USS) is defined as not stopping within the specified area and/or
not entering the finish-state described in DV2.4.

D9.1.8 Acceleration Skidpad Autocross Endurance Trackdrive
DOO 2 s 0.2 s 2 s 2 s 2 s
OC DNF DNF 10 s 10 s DNF
USS DNF DNF n/a n/a −50 points

D9.1.9 DNF equals zero points on that run.

D9.1.10 If a team Did Not Attempt (DNA) an event the score is zero points.

D9.1.11 Each run with an incorrect number of laps at skidpad is classified as DNF.

D9.1.12 Failure to obey a flag: one minute time penalty.

D9.1.13 Reckless or aggressive driving or “Over Driving”: black flag (see D2.1.3)

D9.1.14 Vehicle to vehicle contact: Two minutes up to disqualification depending on the nature of the
incident.

D9.1.15 If a vehicle stalls and cannot restart without external assistance, the vehicle is DNF for that
run.

D9.1.16 [EV ONLY] Each power or voltage violation, see EV2.2, is DNF for the fastest run. If a
violation occured during two runs, the two fastest runs will be DNF etc.

D9.2 Endurance Penalties

D9.2.1 Out of order running: Teams that are not ready-to-race when their turn arrives for endurance
are penalized two minutes and may then run at the discretion of the officials.

D9.2.2 Mechanical Problem: The time taken for mechanical inspection under a “mechanical black
flag” (see D2.1.4) is considered officials’ time and is not included in the team’s total time. If
the inspection reveals a mechanical integrity problem the vehicle is scored DNF.

D9.2.3 If it is impossible to impose a penalty by a stop under a black flag, e.g. not enough laps left,
the officials may add an appropriate time penalty to the team’s elapsed time.

D9.2.4 A team may receive a DNF if their vehicle is too slow or being driven without proper control.

D9.2.5 Any violation to the procedure of driver change (D7.4.3) lead to a time penalty of up to two
minutes.

D9.3 [CV ONLY] Efficiency Penalties

D9.3.1 Should the fuel level change after refueling due to effects such as described in CV2.7.1,
then the difference in fuel level will be measured and twice the amount will be added to the
official fuel consumption figure.

Formula Student Rules 2017 Version: 1.1 128 of 128

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