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TitleROCKET PROPULSION
Tags Rocket Rocket Propellant Aerodynamics Rocket Engine
File Size18.2 MB
Total Pages468
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Executive Summary
Synthèse
Table of Contents
List of Authors/Lecturers
1 - Introduction to Solid Rocket Propulsion
	SUMMARY
	1.0  GENERALITIES
		1.1  History
		1.2  The Basic Solid Rocket Motor
		1.3  Definitions
		1.4  A First Approach of Motor Operation
		1.5  Evolution of Parameters According to Time
	2.0  THE MAIN ISSUES OF SOLID PROPELLANT ROCKET MOTOR
		2.1  Burning Rate
		2.2  Grain Design
	3.0  IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF SOPHISTICATED AERODYNAMIC PREDICTION
		3.1  Steady-State Operation
		3.2  Unsteady Regimes
	4.0  APPROACH OF INTERNAL AERODYNAMICS IN SOLID ROCKET PROPULSION BY COMPUTATION
	5.0  PHYSICAL OBSTACLES
	6.0  PROSPECTS
	7.0  SELECTED REFERENCES
		Fundamentals
		Instabilities
		ASSM/POP Program
3 - Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors
	SUMMARY
	INTRODUCTION
	A SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODEL OF GRAIN INSTABILITY
	APPLICATION OF SIMPLE MODEL TO TITAN SRMU
	COMPLETE MOTOR MODEL
		Ignition Transient Flow Solution
		Grain Shape Calculation
		Grid Geometry
	LARGE MOTOR SOLUTIONS
		Titan SRMU Solutions
		Ariane 5 MPS Solutions
		Titan 7-Segment Solutions
	CONCLUDING REMARKS
	REFERENCES
4 - Combustion of Solid Propellants
	ABSTRACT
	INTRODUCTION
	COMBUSTION OF DOUBLE-BASE PROPELLANTS AND ACTIVE BINDERS
		1.0  Introduction
		2.0  Flame Structure
		3.0  Condensed Phase Processes
		4.0  Flame Zone
		5.0  Active Binders
		6.0  Mechanisms of Action of Additives
	PYROLYSIS OF INERT BINDERS
	COMBUSTION OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE
		1.0  Condensed Phase Behavior
		2.0  Energetics of the AP Combustion
		3.0  Surface Pyrolysis of AP
		4.0  Flame Structure of the AP Combustion
	COMBUSTION OF HMX
		1.0  Condensed Phase Processes
		2.0  Gas Phase Behavior
	COMBUSTION OF RDX
	COMBUSTION OF CL20 (HNIW)
	COMBUSTION OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS
		1.0  Comparative Picture of Composite Propellants Combustion
		2.0  Propellant Burning Rate Resulting from Component Rates
		3.0  HMX (or RDX) (or HNIW) – Active Binder Propellants
		4.0  AP-Inert Binder Propellants
	CONCLUSIONS
	ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
	REFERENCES
		General References (Combustion, Chemical Propulsion, Solid Propellants)
		Double-Base Propellants and Active Binders References
		Inert Binders References
		Ammonium Perchlorate References
		HMX, RDX, HNIW References
		Composite Propellants References
5 - A Summary of Aluminum Combustion
	Abstract
	Introduction
	Aluminum Combustion Research in Russia
	Experimental Investigations into Aluminum Particle Combustion
		Propellant Ignited Aluminum Particles
		Gas Burner Ignited Aluminum Particles
		Laser, Flash, and Shock Ignited Aluminum Particles
	Summary of Experimental Combustion Data
	The “D2” Law in Aluminum Combustion
	Effects of Oxidizing Atmosphere
		The Effect of Oxygen
		The Effect of Diffusivity
		The Effect of CO2 and Water
	Effects of Pressure and Ambient Temperature
	Summary Correlation of the Data
	Modeling Aluminum Combustion
		Background
		Liang and Beckstead’s Model
		Aluminum Combustion Mechanism
		Condensation Model
		General Mathematical Model
	Boundary Conditions
	Modeling Results and Discussion
	Summary and Conclusions
	Nomenclature
	References
7 - Motor Flow Instabilities – Part 1
	INTRODUCTION
	MOTOR STABILITY
		General Overview
		Acoustic Balance
		Particular Contributions to the Acoustic Balance
		Flow Turning Issue
		Two-Phase Flows
		Conclusion/Limitations
	FLOW STABILITY
		Presentation
		Intrinsic Non-Linear Nature
		Model Requirements
	STABILITY THEORY
	DEALING WITH FLOW STABILITY
		Experimental Evidences
		Simplified Approaches
		Full Numerical Approaches
		Examples
	CONCLUSIONS/UNSETTLED ISSUES
	ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
	REFERENCES
8 - Motor Flow Instabilities – Part 2: Intrinsic Linear Stability of the Flow Induced by Wall Injection
	Introduction
	Chapter 1 – Geometry, Presentation
		1.1  Experimental Facilities
		1.2  Notations
		1.3  General Equations
		1.4  Basic Flow
	Chapter 2 – Linear Stability Theory
		2.1  A Short Philosophical Escape
		2.2  Small Perturbation Technique
		2.3  Normal Mode Form
		2.4  Dispersion Relation
		2.5  Linearised Equations
	Chapter 3 – Stability Results
		3.1  Eigenmodes
		3.2  Amplitude and n Factor
		3.3  Influence of the Reynolds Number
		3.4  Comparisons with the Experiment
	Chapter 4 – In(tro)spection of the Used Assumptions
		4.1 Non Parallel Effects
		4.2  Physical Assumptions
	Conclusion
		Acknowledgement
	Bibliography
	ANNEX: Spectral Collocation Method for Eigenvalue Problem
		Description of the Method
		Typical Stability Code
		Code Written in Matlab
9 - Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Aerodynamics Part 1: Steady State Computations
	NOTATIONS
	INTRODUCTION
	GENERAL EQUATION FOR AERODYNAMICS
	SOLID PROPULSION MODELS
	COMBUSTION AND EROSIVE BURNING
		Phenomenological Heat Transfer Theories
		Chemically Reacting Turbulent Boundary Layer Analysis
	TURBULENCE
	TWO-PHASE FLOW EFFECTS
		Two-Phase Losses
		Investigation of the Slag Formation
	THERMOCHEMISTRY
	RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION
		Main Features of the Modeling
		Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Formulation
		Structural Model
		Fluid-Structure Coupling Algorithm
	CONCLUDING REMARKS
	REFERENCES
10 - Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Aerodynamics Part 2: Unsteady Flows
	NOTATIONS
	INTRODUCTION
	GRAIN REGRESSION EFFECT
	PHYSICAL MODELS
		Unsteady Combustion Modeling
		Two-Phase Flows
	TURBULENCE
	VALIDATION CASES
		Comparison to Analytical Results
		Comparison to Acoustic Balance
		Cold Flows
		Validation on Simplified Rocket Motors
	RECENT IMPROVEMENTS
		Full Motor Firing Simulation
		Fluid-Structure Coupling
	CONCLUDING REMARKS
	REFERENCES
11 - Combustion Instabilities in Solid Propellant Rocket Motors
	CONTENTS
	ABSTRACT
	1.  A BRIEF SURVEY OF COMBUSTION INSTABILITIES IN SOLID ROCKETS
		1.1  Introduction
		1.2  Historical Background
		1.3  Solid Propellant Rocket Motors
		1.4  Mechanisms of Combustion Instabilties
		1.5  Physical Characteristics of Combustion Instabilities
		1.6  Linear Behavior
		1.7  Nonlinear Behavior
		1.8  Analysis and Numerical Simulations of Combustion Instabilities
	2.  MECHANISMS OF COMBUSTION INSTABILITIES IN SOLID PROPELLANT ROCKETS
		2.1  Qualitative Interpretation of the Basic Mechanism
		2.2  Analysis of the QSHOD Model
		2.3  Measurements of the Response Function; Comparison of Experimental Results and the QSHOD Model
		2.4  The Zel'dovich-Novozhilov (Z-N) Model
		2.5  Revisions and Extensions of the QSHOD Model
		2.6  Modeling the Effects of Velocity Coupling on the Global Dynamics of Combustion Chambers
		2.7  Velocity Coupling, the Combustion Response, and Global Dynamics
		2.8  Generation of Vorticity and Vortex Shedding
		2.9  Distributed Combustion
	3.  EQUATIONS FOR UNSTEADY MOTIONS IN COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
		3.1  Modes of Wave Motion in a Compressible Medium
		3.2  Equations of Motion for a Reacting Flow
		3.3  Two-Parameter Expansion of the Equations of Motion
		3.4  Nonlinear Wave Equations for the Pressure Field
	4.  MODAL EXPANSION AND SPATIAL AVERAGING; AN ITERATIVE METHOD OF SOLUTION
		4.1  Application of a Green's Function for Steady Waves
		4.2  An Alternative Derivation of the First Order Formula
		4.3  Approximate Solution for Unsteady Nonlinear Motions
		4.4  Application of Time-Averaging
		4.5  The Procedure for Iterative Solution
	5.  SOME FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS
		5.1  The Linearized Equations of Motion: The Velocity Potential
		5.2  Energy and Intensity Associated with Acoustic Waves
		5.3  The Growth or Decay Constant
		5.4  Boundary Conditions: Reflections from a Surface
		5.5  Wave Propagation in Tubes; Normal Modes
		5.6  Normal Acoustic Modes and Frequencies for a Chamber
	6.  LINEAR STABILITY OF COMBUSTOR DYNAMICS
		6.1  Solution for the Problem of Linear Stability
		6.2  An Alternative Calculation of Linear Stability
		6.3  An Example: Linear Stability with Distributed Sources of Heat and Motion of the Boundary
		6.4  Rayleigh's Criterion and Linear Stability
		6.5  Explicit Formulas for Linear Stability
	7.  NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR
		7.1  The Two-Mode Approximation
		7.2  Application of a Continuation Method
		7.3  Hysteresis and Control of Combustion Instabilities
		7.4  Representing Noise in Analysis of Combustor Dynamics
		7.5  System Identification for Combustor Dynamics with Noise
	8.  PASSIVE CONTROL OF COMBUSTION INSTABILITIES
	A.  EQUATIONS OF MOTION
		A.1  General Equations of Motion. Conservation of Species
		A.2  Expansions in Mean and Fluctuating Variables
	B.  THE EQUATIONS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL UNSTEADY MOTIONS
		B.1  Equations for Unsteady One-Dimensional Motions
	REFERENCES
	ATTACHMENT – AIAA-2022-3592 – Modeling and Dynamics of Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in a Combustion Chamber
		Abstract
		1.  Introduction
		2.  Coupled Oscillator Equations
			2.1  Energy Transfer
			2.2  Modal Truncation
		3.  Triggered Limit Cycles
		4.  Velocity Coupling Models
		5.  Conclusions
		6.  Acknowledgments
		BIBLIOGRAPHY
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