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TitleRoad lighting user experiments
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Total Pages130
Table of Contents
Abstract (in Finnish)
Symbols and abbreviations
	Challenges in user studies
	Outdoor lighting future directions
	Research methodology - past and present
		User appraisal of street lighting
		Living Lab
	Research question
	Outline of this thesis
	Usability and lighting research - the connection
	The concept of usability
	Usability testing methods
	Experience Sampling Method
	Vision, weather and safety
		Traffic safety
		Personal safety
Review of user studies in road lighting
	Studies advancing research methodology
		Experiment designs and initial illuminance recommendation, de Boer 1967
		Pedestrians' visual needs, Caminada and van Bommel, 1980
		Test method to raise the processing level of test stimulus, Akashi et al. 2007
	Studies on visual performance
		Mesopic and photopic detection threshold in foveal and peripheral vision, Eloholma 2005
		Simulated surface irregularity test, Fotios 2009
		Visibility simulations in intersections, Rea et al. 2009
		Facial characteristics recognition evaluation, Iwata et al. 2014
	Studies on effects of lighting on attention
		Restoration and directed attention, Nikunen 2012
		Identifying critical tasks for pedestrians, Fotios et al. 2014
	Studies on perceived safety
		Crime database review and a survey in relit area, Atkins 1991
		Before/after study of three locations, Painter 1996
		Four assessment studies of parking lots, Boyce 2000
		Locations assessed for several attributes, Blöbaum & Hünecke 2005
		Perception differences between different SPD, Rea et al. 2009a
		Perception differences after a change of SPD, Knight 2010
		Comparing different demographic groups' appraisals, Johansson et al. 2010
		Exploring the effect of semantic priming on appraisals, Unwin et al. 2010 & 2014
		Luminaire comparisons on pedestrian ways, Jaatinen 2010
		Dynamic lighting distribution and perceived safety, Haans & de Kort 2012
		Luminaire comparisons on pedestrian ways, Rantakallio 2011
		More luminaire comparisons on pedestrian ways, Rantakallio et al. 2012
		Changes in appraisals after retrofitting, Kuhn et al. 2012
		Discomfort glare ratings, Lai et al. 2014
		Entrapment, lighting and gender, Boomsma & Steg 2014
	Studies on other subjective attributes
		Spatial perception differences inside a car, Caberletti et al. 2007
		Discomfort glare ratings, Bullough et al. 2008
		Preference between MH and HPS, Ekrias 2009
		Subjective appraisals of installations, Rantakallio 2011 revisited
		Preference differences between motorways and urban areas, Viikari et al. 2012
		Changes in appraisals after retrofitting, Kuhn et al. 2012
		From adjective pair assessments to two quality indices, Johansson et al. 2013
		Distribution adjustments and appraisals, Viliunas et al. 2013
		Novel data analysis of appraisals, Romnée 2014
		Use of Focus Group prior to lighting study, Kostic & Djokic 2014
		From users' preferences to a new luminaire, Athledics project, Juntunen et al. 2014
	Studies on eye gaze direction
		Classifying gazed-at objects, Davoudian 2012
		Gaze distributions on rural roads, Cengiz et al. 2013
		Gaze directions walking on pavement, Luo 2014
		Assessment of studies' reports, Unwin et al. 2010 & 2014
		Assessment of studies supporting mesopic knowledge in practical installations, TNO 2010
		Number of response categories, Atli & Fotios 2011
		Review of face recognition tests, Fotios et al. 2014
	Various commercial test installations of LED lamps
	Unanswered questions in previous studies
		Effect of luminous parameters and environment on perceived safety
		Do subjective results measure the intended?
		Attributes assessed to date
	Summary of findings
	Conclusions from prior research
		Questions derived from empirical evidence
		Test designs
		Requirements for reporting
Product development of a feedback device
	Design choices
		Device technology
		Android software
	Implementation overview
		Android software
Validation of device functionality
	Step towards a Living Lab
	Validation of data output
	Validation of usability
		User tests
	From literature to device requirements
	The device in view of requirements
	Known limitations
Input device construction details
Input device source code

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