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TitleResults from the Personal Roads to Individual Development and Employment
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages119
Document Text Contents
Page 1

The Employment Retention
and Advancement Project

Results from the Personal Roads

to Individual Development and Employment


(PRIDE) Program in New York City



Dan Bloom

Cynthia Miller

Gilda Azurdia


July 2007

Page 2

MDRC is conducting the Employment Retention and Advancement project under a contract with the
Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser-
vices (HHS), funded by HHS under a competitive award, Contract No. HHS-105-99-8100. Addi-
tional funding has been provided by the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL). The Lewin Group, as a
subcontractor, is helping to provide technical assistance to the sites. HumRRO, as a subcontractor, is
fielding the client surveys.

The findings and conclusions presented herein do not necessarily represent the official position or
policies of HHS.

Dissemination of MDRC publications is supported by the following funders that help finance
MDRC’s public policy outreach and expanding efforts to communicate the results and implications
of our work to policymakers, practitioners, and others: Alcoa Foundation, The Ambrose Monell
Foundation, The Atlantic Philanthropies, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Open Society Institute,
and The Starr Foundation. In addition, earnings from the MDRC Endowment help sustain our dis-
semination efforts. Contributors to the MDRC Endowment include Alcoa Foundation, The Ambrose
Monell Foundation, Anheuser-Busch Foundation, Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation, Charles Stew-
art Mott Foundation, Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The Grable Foundation, The
Lizabeth and Frank Newman Charitable Foundation, The New York Times Company Foundation,
Jan Nicholson, Paul H. O’Neill Charitable Foundation, John S. Reed, The Sandler Family Support-
ing Foundation, and The Stupski Family Fund, as well as other individual contributors.

For information about MDRC and copies of our publications, see our Web site: www.mdrc.org.

Copyright © 2007 by MDRC. All rights reserved.

http:www.mdrc.org

Page 59

Effects on Employment and Public Assistance Receipt

This section presents the effects of New York City’s Personal Roads to Individual Devel­
opment and Employment (PRIDE) program on employment, employment retention, cash assis­
tance receipt, and food stamp receipt in the first two years after random assignment. Administra­
tive records data are used to compare outcomes for the PRIDE and control groups among single
parents and for Safety Net recipients without dependent children. The tables and figures present
effects on summary measures. Effects on the full set of outcomes are shown in Appendix B.

Effects for Single Parents
• On average, the PRIDE program increased employment and employ-

ment stability among single parents. The effects persisted throughout
the two-year follow-up period.

The upper panel of Table 6 summarizes the impacts of PRIDE on employment that was
covered by unemployment insurance (UI) and on public assistance receipt for the two-year fol­
low-up period, and the middle and lower panels of the table show each of the two years sepa­
rately. Note that off-the-books jobs and unpaid work, such as work experience placements, are
not captured by the UI system.36 As shown, a larger percentage of the PRIDE group was “ever
employed” in UI-covered jobs at some point during the follow-up period. Table 6 shows that
33.7 percent of the PRIDE group versus 26.5 percent of the control group worked at some point
during the two-year period, for an increase of 7.2 percentage points.37 However, the low em­
ployment levels for both groups are noteworthy. About two-thirds of the PRIDE group and al­
most three-fourths of the control group did not work in a UI-covered job during the two-year
follow-up. Furthermore, only 15.7 percent of the PRIDE group and 12.8 percent of the control
group worked during a typical quarter during this period.38 These patterns reflect the limited
employability of the PRIDE target group: Individuals who have physical and mental health bar­
riers have lower rates of employment than the general population. (See Box 3.)

The middle and bottom panels of Table 6 and the top panel of Figure 4 show em­
ployment rates and effects over time. These data show that the employment impacts persisted

36Other jobs not covered by the UI system include federal, out-of-state, and military jobs and self-employment.
37The employment, public assistance, and survey impacts are estimated in a regression framework, which

also controls for a range of background characteristics, including race/ethnicity, number of children, age of
children, service provider, intake period, prior food stamp receipt, prior employment, and prior TANF receipt.

38The average quarterly employment rate is calculated as total quarters employed divided by 8 (the num­
ber of quarters in the follow-up period), expressed as a percentage.

37


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http:system.36

Page 60

The Employment Retention and Advancement Project


Table 6


Years 1 and 2, Impacts on UI-Covered Employment and Public Assistance

for Single Parents


New York City PRIDE


PRIDE
Group

Control
Group

Difference
(Impact) Outcome P-Value

Years 1 and 2

Employment (%)
Ever employed 33.7 26.5 7.2 *** 0.000
Average quarterly employment
Employed 8 consecutive quarters

15.7
3.2

12.8
2.9

2.9 ***
0.2

0.004
0.725

Income ($)
Earningsa 3,536 2,982 554 a NA
Amount of cash assistance received 10,732 11,550 -818 *** 0.000
Amount of food stamps received 6,256 6,386 -130 0.123
Total measured incomea, b 20,455 21,016 -562 a NA

Year 1

Employment (%)
Ever employed 23.0 18.7 4.3 *** 0.004
Average quarterly employment
Employed 4 consecutive quarters

13.1
5.5

11.3
4.7

1.8 *
0.7

0.065
0.384

Income ($)
Earningsa 1,330 1,167 163 a NA
Amount of cash assistance received 5,806 6,100 -293 *** 0.001
Amount of food stamps received 3,301 3,334 -34 0.395
Total measured incomea, b 10,396 10,658 -262 a NA

Year 2

Employment (%)
Ever employed 27.1 22.0 5.1 *** 0.002
Average quarterly employment
Employed 4 consecutive quarters

18.3
9.8

14.3
7.9

4.0 ***
1.9 *

0.001
0.092

Income ($)
Earningsa 2,206 1,815 391 a NA
Amount of cash assistance received 4,925 5,450 -525 *** 0.000
Amount of food stamps received 2,956 3,052 -96 * 0.072
Total measured incomea, b 10,058 10,358 -300 a NA

Sample size (total = 2,648) 1,553 1,095
(continued)

38

Page 119

About MDRC


MDRC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan social and education policy research organization dedicated
to learning what works to improve the well-being of low-income people. Through its research
and the active communication of its findings, MDRC seeks to enhance the effectiveness of so­
cial and education policies and programs.

Founded in 1974 and located in New York City and Oakland, California, MDRC is best known
for mounting rigorous, large-scale, real-world tests of new and existing policies and programs.
Its projects are a mix of demonstrations (field tests of promising new program approaches) and
evaluations of ongoing government and community initiatives. MDRC’s staff bring an unusual
combination of research and organizational experience to their work, providing expertise on the
latest in qualitative and quantitative methods and on program design, development, implementa­
tion, and management. MDRC seeks to learn not just whether a program is effective but also
how and why the program’s effects occur. In addition, it tries to place each project’s findings in
the broader context of related research — in order to build knowledge about what works across
the social and education policy fields. MDRC’s findings, lessons, and best practices are proac­
tively shared with a broad audience in the policy and practitioner community as well as with the
general public and the media.

Over the years, MDRC has brought its unique approach to an ever-growing range of policy ar­
eas and target populations. Once known primarily for evaluations of state welfare-to-work pro­
grams, today MDRC is also studying public school reforms, employment programs for ex-
offenders and people with disabilities, and programs to help low-income students succeed in
college. MDRC’s projects are organized into five areas:

• Promoting Family Well-Being and Child Development

• Improving Public Education

• Raising Academic Achievement and Persistence in College

• Supporting Low-Wage Workers and Communities

• Overcoming Barriers to Employment

Working in almost every state, all of the nation’s largest cities, and Canada and the United
Kingdom, MDRC conducts its projects in partnership with national, state, and local govern­
ments, public school systems, community organizations, and numerous private philanthropies.

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