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TitleReport "The Global Maritime Security and the Japan-U.S. Alliance"
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Table of Contents
                            The Global Maritime Securityand the Japan‐U.S. Alliance
	Table of Contents
	Preface
	Executive Summary
	Part I
		Chapter 1
		Chapter 2
	Part II
		Chapter 3
		Chapter 4
		Chapter 5
	Part III
		Chapter 6
		Chapter 7
		Chapter 8
	Appendix
		Contributors
		Secretariat
		Introduction to
JFIR
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

May 2010 

  The Global Maritime Security 
                and the Japan‐U.S. Alliance 

 
Report of the Study Project        

 Challenges and Prospects of Japan‐U.S.  
Cooperation in Non‐Traditional Security:  

Focusing on Anti‐Piracy Cooperation

Published by 
The Japan Forum on International Relations (JFIR)



Supported by 
The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership (CGP)

Page 2

Table of Contents 

 

Preface..………….……………………………………………………………………………………1 
Executive Summary.…………………………………………………………………………………3 

 

Part I: Promoting Japan‐U.S. Cooperation 
  Chapter 1    The Establishment of U.S.‐Japan Comprehensive Approaches to Counter‐Piracy……………...7 

Chapter 2    Safety and Security in the Malacca Straits: The Limits of Collaboration…………………………18 

       

Part II: Lessons and Challenges of Counter Piracy 
Chapter 3    The Challenge of the Jolly Roger: Industry Perspectives on Piracy………………………………39 

Chapter 4    Dangerous Sea Areas Where Many Cases of Piracy Take Place…………………………………...54 

Chapter 5    Japan’s Role in Strengthening Maritime Security in Southeast Asia………………………………63 

       

  Part III: Counter Piracy and the Japan‐U. S. Alliance 
Chapter 6    Japan’s Counter‐Piracy Policy and The U.S.‐Japan Partnership……………………………………77 

Chapter 7    United States Strategic Interests and Cooperative Activities in Maritime Southeast Asia………85 

Chapter 8    Fusing U.S’s New Maritime Strategy & Japan’s Maritime Defense Strategy…………………….103 

     

Appendix 
Contributors………..………….……………………………………………………………………………………120 
Secretariat………..………….………………………………………………………………………………………122 
Introduction to JFIR……………………………………………………………………………………………...123

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Though it has not been reported in Japan as no ship associated with Japan has been attacked, the most 

dangerous type of piracy, including robbery at sea, kidnapping and shooting, is committed off Nigeria. 

Pirates  attack  ships  and  take money  and  goods  by  force  from  time  to  time  in  the Gerasa  Strait  of 

Indonesia and near the Anambas Islands in the South China Sea. In Peru and Brazil in South America 

and in Bangladesh in South Asia, many sneak thief–type pirates creep onto mooring ships and commit 

theft. 

 

Threat of Terrorism at Sea
It  is difficult  to  tell  terrorism at sea  from piracy. Since 2001,  typical groups of pirates  in  the Strait of 

Malacca  combined with  anti‐government  organizations  and  groups  of  terrorists,  thereby  integrating 

piracy and  terrorism at sea  into a new  type of marine crime.  In  June 2001, a spokesman  for  the Free 

Aceh Movement, an Indonesian anti‐government organization, declared that ships sailing through the 

Strait  of Malacca  should  obtain  permission  from  the  Free  Aceh Movement,  which  attacked  small 

tankers. Thus the number of cases of piracy by anti‐government organizations increased in the Strait of 

Malacca  from  2001  to  2004. Pirates  cooperating with  anti‐government organizations  are  armed with 

machine guns and rifles, they attack small tankers, tag boats and fishing boats, and they abduct sailors 

and  demand  ransoms.  The  appearance  of  such  pirates  has  called  for  countermeasures  that  span 

borders. 

On October  6,  2002,  Islamic  terrorists  charged  a  small  boat  at  a  big  French  tanker  called 

Limbourg (158,000 gross tons), and blew up their own boat off Yemen in the Gulf of Aden. Since many 

countries have only poor capacities for patrolling their coasts in Asia and Africa in particular, terrorists’ 

intrusion  from  the  sea  and  acts  of  terrorism  along  coasts  are  feared.  It was  found  that  offenders 

involved  in  the  terrorist explosions  in Mumbai  in India  in November 2008 entered via  the sea. It was 

also  found  that  North  Korean  agents  entered  Japan  from  the  sea  and  committed  unlawful  acts 

including abductions. Singapore has been strengthening  its sea patrols as  it  is worried  that  terrorists 

may destroy oil refinery plants  in  the port. It  is alerting ships carrying dangerous substances such as 

LNG tankers. Though the coastal zones of Asian countries have taken few measures against terrorism 

at sea so far, more and more Asian ports are going on the alert in the same way as Singapore. 

Training  for patrolling at sea and  for catching ships carrying weapons of mass destruction 

are  carried out  in order  to prevent acts of  terrorism at  sea:  this  is  the  joint  training  for Proliferation 

Security  Initiative  (PSI)  that  was  started  in  2003  at  the  U.S.’s  proposal.  PSI  is  a  framework  for 

cooperation  among  countries  around  the  world  to  prevent  the  proliferation  of  weapons  of  mass 

destruction and missiles, and products related thereto from states sponsoring terrorism. More than 60

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countries have joined this framework, with 15 countries including Japan, the U.S., the UK and Russia

being core members. In August 2005, joint training was held off Singapore in which vessels of the Japan

Coast Guard and the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force participated.

While the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea has international provisions on

piracy, the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation

(“SUAConvention”) has provisions on how to deal with terrorism at sea and piracy.

The SUA Convention was adopted in 1988 following the incident of the Achille Lauro, an

Italian cruise ship that was hijacked by Palestine guerillas in the Mediterranean Sea in 1985. Japan

acceded to this convention in 1998. In this case, the offenders demanded the release of their comrades

and one U.S. passenger was killed. Thereafter the SUA Convention was adopted, led by the United

States. It stipulates that countries other than coastal states may also control serious crimes such as

piracy and acts of terrorism at sea that involve the territorial waters of two countries or more. There are,

however, only a small number of countries that have ratified the SUA Convention as many consider it

to violate their jurisdiction.

Areas off Yemen, along the coast of Sri Lanka, off the southern Philippines and along the

coast of Bali are considered to be at danger from terrorism at sea in Asia.

There are marine areas other than the Straits of Malacca and Singapore and off Somalia where caution

is needed. One is along the coast of Sri Lanka, where acts of terrorism at sea were committed by

Liberation Tiger of Tamil Eelam, an anti government organization of Sri Lanka. In 2007, a speedboat

carrying a bomb rushed into the port in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. This organization is also

known to practice piracy. Similarly, Abu Sayyaf is an anti government organization that commits acts of

terrorism at sea and piracy in the south of the Philippines. Acts of terrorism at sea and attacks on ships

are also likely by Islamic extremists in the south of Thailand and in the sea near Bali, Indonesia.

Countries around the world are calling for strengthened patrols at sea, led by the IMO, but

the seas of the world are too wide to take care of in reality. Somali piracy has made us realize the limits

of patrolling the sea. We need to strengthen new systems for patrols at sea, including ships’ self defense

measures from now on. Japan also needs to consider establishing cooperative systems between the

Japan Maritime Self Defense Force and the Japan Coast Guard, overcoming their sectionalism,

including legal systems.

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The Japan Forum on International Relations, Inc.
Akasaka 2‐17‐12‐1301, Minato‐ku, Tokyo 107‐0052, Japan 

Tel: +81‐3‐3584‐2190    Fax: +81‐3‐3584‐2190 
E‐Mail: [email protected]  URL: http://www.jfir.or.jp 

JF-J-Ⅲ-A-0023

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