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TitleReference Guide to Writing Across the Curriculum (Reference Guides to Rhetoric and Composition)
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages186
Document Text Contents
Page 1

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM traces
the Writing Across the Curriculum movement from its origins in British second-
ary education through its flourishing in American higher education and extension
to American primary and secondary education. The authors follow their histori-
cal review of the literature by a review of research into primary, secondary, and
higher education WAC teaching and learning. Subsequent chapters examine the
relations of WAC to Writing to Learn theory, research, and pedagogy, as well as
its interactions with the Rhetoric of Science and Writing in the Disciplines move-
ments. Current issues of theory and practice are followed by a presentation of best
practices in program design, assessment, and classroom practices. An extensive
bibliography and suggestions for further reading round out this comprehensive
guide to Writing Across the Curriculum.

CHARLES BAZERMAN is Professor and Chair of the Department of Education at
the University of California, Santa Barbara, His most recent books are Writing
Selves and Societies ( co-edited with David Russell; http://wac.colostate.edu/books/
selves_societies/ ) and What Writing Does and How It Does It ( co-edited with Paul
Prior ). His The Languages of Edison’s Light, won the Association of American Pub-
lisher’s award for the best scholarly book of 1999 in the History of Science and
Technology. JOSEPH LITTLE is a writer and teacher of writing who lives and works
in Toronto, having earned his PhD at UCSB in Language, Literacy, and Compo-
sition Studies. His work has been published in Written Communication, Rhetoric
Society Quarterly, and the Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. LISA
BETHEL teaches writing in the Los Angeles area. TERI CHAVKIN is a doctoral
student in the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education at UCSB, specializing in the
teaching of writing and researching the writing processes of students with high
functioning autism. DANIELLE FOUQUETTE is Instructor of English at Fullerton
College, where she teaches writing and researches the assumptions and perspec-
tives of teacher commentary on student writing. JANET GARUFIS is adding gradu-
ate studies in writing to a successful career in the banking industry. Her interests
include business writing, writing and identity, and social justice.

REFERENCE GUIDES TO RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
Series Editor, Charles Bazerman

Parlor Press
816 Robinson Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
www.parlorpress.com
S A N: 2 5 4 - 8 8 7 9
ISBN 1-932559-44-2

The WAC Clearinghouse
http://wac.colostate.edu/

Rhetoric and Composition

PARLOR
PRESS
WACC

Page 2

REFERENCE GUIDES TO RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION

Page 93

Rhetoric of Science, Rhetoric of Inquiry, and Writing in the Disciplines 83

literate activity in contexts ranging from contemporary biology to me-
dieval letter writing. The diversity of articles examine situatedness of
writing processes and the particular ways in which writing is indeed
a form of social action and constitutive of social reality. Socially situ-
ated approaches to writing have been strongly influenced by genre and
activity theory (see Chapter 7); articles on academic writing from this
perspective are reviewed in Russell (1997b), which is part of a special
issue of devoted to the Activity of Writing.
Another collection taking this perspective is

(Bazerman & Russell, 2003).
There have been fewer studies of writing in the humanities and

social sciences. Susan Peck MacDonald (1994) has done the most ex-
tensive comparative study of writing in the social sciences and human-
ities. In comparing writing from literary studies, social history, and
social psychology, she found that there were systematic relations be-
tween the grammatical and lexical features of the texts to the motives
and epistemologies—how they frame and investigate problems—of
the different fields. She finds greater compactness in theory and prob-
lem formulation in the social sciences than in the humanities. The
humanities she finds concerned with detailed interpretive representa-
tions of their particularized objects of attention, while social sciences
tend to be more conceptually driven. She finds these differences both
at the level of larger argument structures and detailed sentence-level
style structures.

In analyzing the rhetoric of literary studies Fahnestock and Secor
(1991) found that literary arguments rely on the topics of paradox,
appearance/reality, ubiquity, paradigm, and com-
plexity.

Lucille McCarthy (1991) has studied the influence of the American
Psychiatric Associations manual of mental disorders on the writing of
articles in psychiatry, finding that the Diagnostic Statistical Manual
has become in essence a charter document, shaping and underlying
both research and practice genres in the mental health field. Berken-
kotter has extended this work to examine how the DSM has developed
out of the biologic tradition of taxonomy and the medical nosology
(Berkenkotter, 2001, 2002). Berkenkotter and Ravotas (1997, 1998,
2001, 2002) have examined how that psychiatric language is applied
through notes and reports to patients, and how it enters into the dialog

Page 94

Reference Guide to Writing Across the Curriculum84

with psychiatric clients. Reynolds, Mair, and Fisher (1992) survey the
genres within the mental health professions.

Another style of analysis of disciplinary texts has developed in the
applied linguistic field of English for Specific Purposes. The research
in this field is directed towards finding structures of professional texts
that can be used to aid advanced English as a second language learners
who have specific disciplinary or professional interests. Swales (1990)
and Bhatia (1993) explain the mode of genre analysis used in this field,
which seeks to identify a series of rhetorical moves by which content
and reasoning is organized in professional texts. The most well known
finding in this work is Swales’ model of scientific article introduc-
tions, which he calls the CARS (or Create A Research Space) model.
This model consists of three primary moves: establishing a territory;
establishing a niche; and finally occupying that niche. The first move
of establishing a territory can be realized by asserting the centrality of
a claim, making topic generalizations, and/or reviewing the literature.
The second move of establishing a niche may be made by asserting
a counter-claim, indicating a gap, raising questions, or continuing a
tradition. The final move of occupying a niche can be realized by out-
lining the purposes of the project at hand or announcing the present
research, announcing the principal findings, and finally indicating the
structure of the article to follow. Swales (1998) engages another mode
of situated text analysis, which he calls textography, by examining the
different forms of writing and texts to be found on the three separate
floors of a small academic building. Another important work out of
the ESP tradition is Kenneth Hyland’s (2000) book

which examines both hedging and citation practices. The jour-
nal carries much of the research in this
field. Related work comes from the Structural Functional Linguistics
tradition that has developed sensitive linguistic tools for the analysis of
texts, including academic and scientific texts (see, for examples, Hal-
liday, 1985; Halliday & Martin, 1993).

Page 186

REFERENCE GUIDE TO WRITING ACROSS THE CURRICULUM traces
the Writing Across the Curriculum movement from its origins in British second-
ary education through its flourishing in American higher education and extension
to American primary and secondary education. The authors follow their histori-
cal review of the literature by a review of research into primary, secondary, and
higher education WAC teaching and learning. Subsequent chapters examine the
relations of WAC to Writing to Learn theory, research, and pedagogy, as well as
its interactions with the Rhetoric of Science and Writing in the Disciplines move-
ments. Current issues of theory and practice are followed by a presentation of best
practices in program design, assessment, and classroom practices. An extensive
bibliography and suggestions for further reading round out this comprehensive
guide to Writing Across the Curriculum.

CHARLES BAZERMAN is Professor and Chair of the Department of Education at
the University of California, Santa Barbara, His most recent books are Writing
Selves and Societies ( co-edited with David Russell; http://wac.colostate.edu/books/
selves_societies/ ) and What Writing Does and How It Does It ( co-edited with Paul
Prior ). His The Languages of Edison’s Light, won the Association of American Pub-
lisher’s award for the best scholarly book of 1999 in the History of Science and
Technology. JOSEPH LITTLE is a writer and teacher of writing who lives and works
in Toronto, having earned his PhD at UCSB in Language, Literacy, and Compo-
sition Studies. His work has been published in Written Communication, Rhetoric
Society Quarterly, and the Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. LISA
BETHEL teaches writing in the Los Angeles area. TERI CHAVKIN is a doctoral
student in the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education at UCSB, specializing in the
teaching of writing and researching the writing processes of students with high
functioning autism. DANIELLE FOUQUETTE is Instructor of English at Fullerton
College, where she teaches writing and researches the assumptions and perspec-
tives of teacher commentary on student writing. JANET GARUFIS is adding gradu-
ate studies in writing to a successful career in the banking industry. Her interests
include business writing, writing and identity, and social justice.

REFERENCE GUIDES TO RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION
Series Editor, Charles Bazerman

Parlor Press
816 Robinson Street
West Lafayette, IN 47906
www.parlorpress.com
S A N: 2 5 4 - 8 8 7 9
ISBN 1-932559-44-2

The WAC Clearinghouse
http://wac.colostate.edu/

Rhetoric and Composition

CHARLES BAZERMAN
JOSEPH LITTLE

LISA BETHEL
TERI CHAVKIN

DANIELLE FOUQUETTE
JANET GARUFIS

REFERENCE GUIDE TO

WRITING ACROSS
THE CURRICULUM

PARLOR
PRESS
WACC

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