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TitleReducing Losses in Power Distribution through Improved Efficiency of Distribution Transformers
LanguageEnglish
File Size6.1 MB
Total Pages86
Table of Contents
                            1 Executive Summary
2 Introduction
	2.1 Background
	2.2 Overview of IEC 60076-20 Technical Specification
3 Approach and Methodology
	3.1 Step A – Compiling DT Data
	3.2 Step B – Defining DT Losses/Efficiency
	3.3 Step C – Defining Analysis Parameters
		3.3.1 Impacts of Daily Load Profile Diversity
		3.3.2 Impacts of DT Designs
	3.4 Step D – Estimating Per-Unit Annual Energy Losses
		3.4.1 Baseline Scenario
		3.4.2 Energy Efficiency/IEC 60076-20 Scenario
	3.5 Step E – Economy Impact Analysis
		3.5.1 Assumption and Data Input
4 Findings from Analysis
	4.1 Philippines
	4.2 Thailand
	4.3 United States
	4.4 Viet Nam
5 Conclusions and Recommendations
	5.1 Conclusions
	5.2 Recommendations
6 Annexes
	6.1 Annex A – MEPS for DTs in APEC Economies
	6.2 Annex B – IEC 60076-20 Energy Performance Levels
	6.3 Annex C – Economy Analysis
		6.3.1 The Philippines
			6.3.1.1 Overview of the Power System
			6.3.1.2 Demand Characteristics
			6.3.1.3 Distribution Transformer Stock and Market
			6.3.1.4 Efficiency Requirements for Distribution Transformers
			6.3.1.5 Baseline and Estimation of Per Unit Annual Energy Losses
			6.3.1.6 Estimation of IEC 60076-20 Scenario
		6.3.2 Thailand
			6.3.2.1 Overview of the Power System
			6.3.2.2 Electricity Demand
			6.3.2.3 Distribution Transformer Stock and Market
			6.3.2.4 Efficiency Standard for Distribution Transformers
			6.3.2.5 Estimation and Baseline Modeling of Per Unit Annual Energy Losses
			6.3.2.6 Estimation of IEC 60076-20 Scenario
				6.3.2.6.1 MEA Analysis
				6.3.2.6.2 PEA Analysis
		6.3.3 USA
			6.3.3.1 Overview of the Power System
			6.3.3.2 Demand Characteristics
			6.3.3.3 Efficiency Standard for Distribution Transformers
			6.3.3.4 Distribution Transformer Stock and Market
			6.3.3.5 Baseline and Estimation of Per Unit Annual Energy Losses
			6.3.3.6 Estimation of IEC 60076-20 Scenario
		6.3.4 Viet Nam
			6.3.4.1 Overview of the Power System
			6.3.4.2 Demand Characteristics
			6.3.4.3 Distribution Transformer Stock and Market
			6.3.4.4 Efficiency Standard for Distribution Transformers
			6.3.4.5 Baseline and Estimation of Per Unit Annual Energy Losses
			6.3.4.6 Estimation of IEC 60076-20 Scenario
	6.4 Annex D – Emission Factors in APEC Economies
	6.5 Annex E – References
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Reducing Losses in Power Distribution
through Improved Efficiency of Distribution
Transformers

APEC Energy Working Group
January 2018

Page 2

APEC Project: EWG 05 2016A

Produced by
International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)
12th Floor, United Business Center II Building, 591, Sukhumvit
Road, Wattana, Bangkok – 10110 T
Tel: +66 2 662 3460-4
Fax: +66 2 261 8615
Website: www.iiec.org

For
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat
35 Heng Mui Keng Terrace
Singapore 119616
Tel: (65) 68919 600
Fax: (65) 68919 690
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.apec.org

© 2018 APEC Secretariat

APEC#218-RE-01.1

Page 43

35

6.3.1.2 Demand Characteristics

According to DOE19, in 2016 total electricity consumption in the Philippines was about 91TWh. The
residential sector accounted for the largest share, consuming about 28% of the total consumption,
followed by the industrial sector at about 27% and the commercial sector at 24%. The remaining
consumptions were met by other end-uses, such as public buildings, street lights, irrigation and
agriculture. As shown in Figure 6-2, percentage shares of electricity consumption in the Philippines
have been relatively constant over the past five years and the overall T&D losses in the Philippines in
2016 was about 9%.


Figure 6-2: Electricity Consumption by End-Use Sector in the Philippines, 2012-2016

Annual peak demand profiles of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao networks over the past five years, as
shown in Figure 6-3, Figure 6-4 and Figure 6-5, reflect climatic conditions in different regions of the
Philippines. In Luzon, the demands were typically peak during April, May and June, while the demands
were low from January to March and then increased about 6% to 8% for the remaining months of the
years. The average annual load factors of these networks were about 78% in 2016.


Figure 6-3: Monthly Peak Demand Profiles of Luzon Network



19 https://www.doe.gov.ph/2016-philippine-power-statistics

27% 27% 27% 28% 28%

24% 24% 24% 24% 24%

28% 27% 28% 27% 27%

7% 8% 8% 9% 9%
11% 10% 10% 9% 9%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

120%

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

System Losses

Utilities Own Use

Others

Industrial

Commercial

Residential

6,000

6,500

7,000

7,500

8,000

8,500

9,000

9,500

10,000

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

M
W

Luzon Peak Demand

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Page 44

36


Figure 6-4: Monthly Peak Demand Profiles of Visayas Network




Figure 6-5: Monthly Peak Demand Profiles of Mindanao Network

Detailed data on daily load profiles of different end-use sectors in the Philippines was not available,
however based on the data compiled by this study, daily load profiles of an electric utility in Mindanao
are shown in Figure 6-6. Residential and commercial customers of this utility have similar consumption
patterns, with an evening peak demand from 7-9pm, while electricity consumed by industrial customers
reflects daily working hours from 8-9 am to 5-6 pm. This specific utility reported the average annual load
factors for residential, commercial and industrial sectors at 65%, 56% and 50% respectively, and these
figures are found to be corresponding with the daily load profiles.



1,000
1,100
1,200
1,300
1,400
1,500
1,600
1,700
1,800
1,900
2,000

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

M
W

Visayas Peak Demand

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

1,000

1,100

1,200

1,300

1,400

1,500

1,600

1,700

JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

M
W

Mindanao Peak Demand

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Page 85

77

U.S. Department of Energy. 2015. The United States Electricity Industry Report. DOE.
https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/12/f28/united-states-electricity-industry-primer.pdf.

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2015/12/f28/united-states-electricity-industry-primer.pdf

Page 86

APEC Project: EWG 05 2016A


Produced by
International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)
12th Floor, United Business Center II Building, 591, Sukhumvit Road,
Wattana, Bangkok – 10110 THAILAND
Tel: +66 2 662 3460-4
Fax: +66 2 261 8615
Website: www.iiec.org


For
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat
35 Heng Mui Keng Terrace
Singapore 119616
Tel: (65) 68919 600
Fax: (65) 68919 690
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.apec.org

© 2018 APEC Secretariat

APEC#218-RE-01.1

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