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TitleRe-thinking Western Policies in Light of the Arab Uprisings
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.3 MB
Total Pages168
Table of Contents
                            cover
Table of Contents
List of Contributors
List of Abbreviations
Introduction. Bouazizi’s Inextinguishable Fire, Riccardo Alcaro
1. Embracing the Change, Accepting the Challenge? Western Response to the Arab Spring, Steven Heydemann
	1.2. Economic Governance vs. Distributive Justice
	1.1. The Legacies of Transitology in Western Responses to the Arab Spring
2. The US Response to the Arab Uprising: Leadership Missing, Robert Springborg
	2.1. What the United States Has Not Done
	2.2. What Could the US Response Be?
	Conclusion
3. The US Response to the Arab Uprising: Part of the Problem?, Issandr El Amrani
	3.1. What Are the US Interests in the Middle East?
	3.2. The American Record
	3.3. The Adventure of Democracy Promotion
	3.4. The Case of Egypt
	3.5. Lessons to Be Learned
	Conclusion
4. The EU Response to the Arab Uprising: Old Wine in New Bottles?, Silvia Colombo and Nathalie Tocci
	4.1. The Challenges of State Sustainability in the Mediterranean
	4.2. The EU's Policies Towards the Mediterranean: An Unbalanced Trade-off Between Democracy and Security
	4.3. The EU and the Arab Spring: A (Missed?) Opportunity to Revamp the EU's Mediterranean Policies
	Conclusions
5. The EU Response to the Arab Uprising: a Show of Ambivalence, Ahmed Driss
	5.1. Did Europe Have a Role in Fostering the Arab Uprisings
	5.2. The EU's Immediate Reaction to the Arab Uprisings: Short of Expectations
	5.3. The Need for Revisiting the EU Regional Policy
	5.4. Rebalancing Euro-Med Relations: Some Recommendations
6. Coordinating Transatlantic Responses to the Arab Uprising: Lessons from the Middle East Quartet, Khaled Elgindy
	6.1. Rationale
	6.2. Background
	6.3. The Quartet as Case Study: Why the Quartet Doesn't Work
	6.4. Lessons Learned
7. Coordinating the Transatlantic Response to the Arab Uprisings: an Agenda for Sustainable Development, Muriel Asseburg
	7.1. Country-specific Challenges, Country-specific Support
	7.2 Setting Priorities
	7.3. Considering Lessons Learned in Democracy Promotion
	7.4. Priority for Economic and Social Reform
	7.5. A Pact for Labour, Education and Energy
	7.6. Dealing with States not yet on a Path of Transformation
Appendix. Report of the Transatlantic Security Symposium 2011, Miguel Haubrich-Seco
	1. The West and the Arab Spring: Accepting the Challenge, Embracing the Change
	2. US Responses to the Arab Upheavals: Challenges and Priorities
	3. EU Response to the Arab Upheavals: Challenges and Priorities
	4. Coordinating Transatlantic Response to the Arab Uprising
	5. Conclusions
	Conference Agenda
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

COP_9788861347168_2FM_158














IA

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Edited by
Riccardo Alcaro and Miguel Haubrich-Seco






RE-THINKING WESTERN
POLICIES IN LIGHT
OF THE ARAB UPRISINGS

4

R
E-TH

IN
K

IN
G W

ESTERN P
O

LIC
IES IN L

IG
H

T O
F TH

E A
RA

B U
PRISIN

G
S

R
iccard

o
A

lcaro
, M

ig
u

el H
au

b
rich

-Seco

www.nuovacultura.it

13.00 EURO

The IAI Research Papers are brief monographs written by one or
more authors (IAI or external experts) on current problems of inter-
national politics and international relations. The aim is to promote
greater and more up to date knowledge of emerging issues and
trends and help prompt public debate.

A non-pro�t organization, IAI was founded in 1965 by Altiero Spinelli,
its �rst director.
The Institute aims to promote understanding of international politics
through research, promotion of political ideas and strategies, disse-
mination of knowledge and education in the �eld of foreign policy.
IAI main research sectors are: European institutions and policies;
Italian foreign policy; trends in the global economy and internationa-
lisation processes in Italy; the Mediterranean and the Middle East;
defence economy and policy; and transatlantic relations.

The �nal outcome of the wave of anti-authoritarian protests in
several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, which have
come to be known as the Arab Spring, remains uncertain. The
Arab Spring might turn into summer if popular demonstrations
succeed in establishing democracy; or it can backtrack to winter,
if counter-revolutionary forces resist change. Nonetheless, the
Arab world will look quite di�erent from what it was prior to the
revolts. Accordingly, external actors, and particularly the US and
the EU, have had, and will continue to have, to adjust. So far the
West’s response to the Arab Spring has been ambivalent. On the
one hand, the West �nds it hard not to sympathise with the
demands of the ‘Arab street’: an end to authoritarian and arbitrary
rule, popular representation, rule of law, social justice, an end to
corruption. On the other hand, Western countries are wary of the
potential outcome of revolutionary change in the Arab world,
since it might evolve into a system of regional relations less
compatible with its preferences than it used to be in the past.
Collecting the di�ering views of experts from the US, the EU and
Arab countries, this volume intends to contribute to the
international debate concerning the West’s approach to the
epochal change occurring across the Mediterranean.

RICCARDO ALCARO is Research Fellow at the Istituto A�ari Interna-
zionali.

MIGUEL HAUBRICH-SECO is Marie Curie PhD Fellow on EU external
relations.

IAI Research Papers

N. 1 European Security and the Future
of Transatlantic Relations,
edited by Riccardo Alcaro and Erik Jones, 2011

N. 2 Democracy in the EU after the Lisbon Treaty,
edited by Ra�aello Matarazzo, 2011

N. 3 The Challenges of State Sustainability in the Mediterranean,
edited by Silvia Colombo and Nathalie Tocci, 2011

N. 4 Re-thinking Western Policies in Light of the Arab Uprisings,
edited by Riccardo Alcaro and Miguel Haubrich-Seco, 2012

SEGUICI SUI SOCIAL NETWORK

Page 84

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SILVIA COLOMBO & NATHALIE TOCCI

82

the West in the post-9/11 world, and a return to the comfortable notion of cooperation with authoritarian (but pro-Western) re-gimes.16 “This abandonment”, recall Cassarino and Tocci, “had immediate reper-cussions on the European Union’s policy towards the region. Almost di-ametrically opposed to the logic underpinning the ENP, which, at least in theory, was committed to the promotion of a “well governed ring of friends” in the European Union’s neighbourhood, in 2007, French Pre-sident Nicolas Sarkozy launched with much fanfare his idea of a Union for the Mediterranean (UfM).17 The underlying logic of the UfM was that of compartmentalising Euro-Med relations by sidelining political issues, such as conflict resolution in the case of the Arab-Israeli and the West-ern Sahara conflicts and democracy and human rights promotion, and proceeding unabated with economic cooperation through the promo-tion of specific projects. Far from the logic of the ENP, theoretically premised on conditional cooperation determined by the domestic reform credentials of the neighbours, the UfM promoted commercially sponsored cooperation be-tween the two shores of the Mediterranean, irrespective of political de-velopments. High amongst the UfM’s list of priority projects were ener-gy, infrastructure, transport, environment, research and development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This is not the place to review the content, desirability and viability of these projects, many of which have yet to see the light. Suffice it to say here that the logic of these projects and of the UfM as a whole was that of promoting cooperation between the two shores of the Mediterranean, without questioning the political context in which such cooperation was embedded. The initiative was initially met with scepticism both within and out-side the European Union. Central and northern member states, first and foremost Germany, as well as the Commission, protested against the in- 16 Tocci and Cassarino, Rethinking the EU's Mediterranean Policies Post-1/11, cit., p. 6. 17 Federica Bicchi and Richard Gillespie, “The Union for the Mediterranean: Continu-ity or Change in Euro-Mediterranean Relations?”, Special Issue, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2011.

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EU RESPONSE: OLD WINE IN NEW BOTTLES?

83

tergovernmentalisation of EU policy that the UfM entailed, shifting EU decision-making to the southern Mediterranean coastal states. Southern member states, notably Spain and Italy, were equally concerned, fearing French designs to supplant their leadership role in the EMP. Outside the European Union, Turkey shunned Sarkozy’s attempt to relegate it to the Mediterranean – rather than European – Union. Israel also had little sympathy for what appeared to be a re-multilateralisation of Euro-Med policies. And the Arab world watched with caution an initiative which purportedly aimed at transforming the much-celebrated “joint owner-ship” of Euro-Med policies from rhetoric into reality, but which in prac-tice smacked of an all-French affair. Interestingly however, neither within nor outside the European Un-ion was there a strong lobby against the UfM’s sidelining of the political reform agenda. Despite all the grumblings, the UfM ultimately came into being in the summer of 2008, oddly merging with the EMP and giving rise to the unwieldy UfM-EMP.18 Since then, commitment has been low all around and the UfM has struggled to resolve its institutional prob-lems. Above all, securing the private sector funds needed to materialise its ambitious projects has proved an uphill battle. Its six priority projects – de-pollution of the Mediterranean, maritime and land high-ways, civil protection, alternative energy and the Mediterranean solar plan, higher education and research, and SME support – remain more in the domain of ambition than reality. What the UfM however did succeed in doing was placing on the backburner EU aims to spur the domestic transformation of its southern Mediterranean partners. Epitomising this “success” was the very fact that heralded as co-chair of the UfM, along-side French President Sarkozy, was no less than his Egyptian counter-part Mubarak, certainly not a shining example of a Mediterranean re-former.”
18 Roberto Aliboni and F.M. Ammor, “Under the Shadow of 'Barcelona”: From the EMP to the Union for the Mediterranean”, EuroMeSCO paper, No 77, 2009.

Page 168

COP_9788861347168_2FM_158














IA

I R
ES

EA
RC

H
PA

PE
RS

Edited by
Riccardo Alcaro and Miguel Haubrich-Seco






RE-THINKING WESTERN
POLICIES IN LIGHT
OF THE ARAB UPRISINGS

4

R
E-TH

IN
K

IN
G W

ESTERN P
O

LIC
IES IN L

IG
H

T O
F TH

E A
RA

B U
PRISIN

G
S

R
iccard

o
A

lcaro
, M

ig
u

el H
au

b
rich

-Seco

www.nuovacultura.it

13.00 EURO

The IAI Research Papers are brief monographs written by one or
more authors (IAI or external experts) on current problems of inter-
national politics and international relations. The aim is to promote
greater and more up to date knowledge of emerging issues and
trends and help prompt public debate.

A non-pro�t organization, IAI was founded in 1965 by Altiero Spinelli,
its �rst director.
The Institute aims to promote understanding of international politics
through research, promotion of political ideas and strategies, disse-
mination of knowledge and education in the �eld of foreign policy.
IAI main research sectors are: European institutions and policies;
Italian foreign policy; trends in the global economy and internationa-
lisation processes in Italy; the Mediterranean and the Middle East;
defence economy and policy; and transatlantic relations.

The �nal outcome of the wave of anti-authoritarian protests in
several countries of North Africa and the Middle East, which have
come to be known as the Arab Spring, remains uncertain. The
Arab Spring might turn into summer if popular demonstrations
succeed in establishing democracy; or it can backtrack to winter,
if counter-revolutionary forces resist change. Nonetheless, the
Arab world will look quite di�erent from what it was prior to the
revolts. Accordingly, external actors, and particularly the US and
the EU, have had, and will continue to have, to adjust. So far the
West’s response to the Arab Spring has been ambivalent. On the
one hand, the West �nds it hard not to sympathise with the
demands of the ‘Arab street’: an end to authoritarian and arbitrary
rule, popular representation, rule of law, social justice, an end to
corruption. On the other hand, Western countries are wary of the
potential outcome of revolutionary change in the Arab world,
since it might evolve into a system of regional relations less
compatible with its preferences than it used to be in the past.
Collecting the di�ering views of experts from the US, the EU and
Arab countries, this volume intends to contribute to the
international debate concerning the West’s approach to the
epochal change occurring across the Mediterranean.

RICCARDO ALCARO is Research Fellow at the Istituto A�ari Interna-
zionali.

MIGUEL HAUBRICH-SECO is Marie Curie PhD Fellow on EU external
relations.

IAI Research Papers

N. 1 European Security and the Future
of Transatlantic Relations,
edited by Riccardo Alcaro and Erik Jones, 2011

N. 2 Democracy in the EU after the Lisbon Treaty,
edited by Ra�aello Matarazzo, 2011

N. 3 The Challenges of State Sustainability in the Mediterranean,
edited by Silvia Colombo and Nathalie Tocci, 2011

N. 4 Re-thinking Western Policies in Light of the Arab Uprisings,
edited by Riccardo Alcaro and Miguel Haubrich-Seco, 2012

SEGUICI SUI SOCIAL NETWORK

http://www.nuovacultura.it

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