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TitleRailway Security Monitoring System Using Vibration Sensor and ZigBee for Addis Ababa Light Rail
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Page 1

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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

Assessment o f P roblems o f Agric u ltura l Extension Services

in Ethiopia : T h e Case o f Foo d Cr o·p Extension Package in

Guto Gida Wored a . East Wollega Zone, Oromia National

R e gional State

A Thesis Submitted To Addis Ababa University College of

Development Studies in Partial Fulfilm ent of the

Requir ement for the Degree of Masters of Art 1Il

Development Studies (rural livelihood a nd d evelopment)

BY

Tesf a Cha.li Kenea.

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Page 2

ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES

COLLEGE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

Title
Assessment of Problems of Agricultural Extension Services in Ethiopia:
The case of Food Crop Extension Package in Guto Gida Woreda, East

Wollega Zone, Oromia National Regional State.

I~.~>" ,.
BY . -.~ .• ' .... .9 ..

. • • .0 ~ 0& () "-'",
Tesfa Chah Kenea , ~. ~$ '" . ~jy~t .,01'1 (l".

, . ' b<ll", . ~"I8A, j}"~,ct "''' (~
I, ) '&. lJtvl l,;': '?6~~ "It, ·qol) ' I.'l'is· ~... .

DEVELOPMENT STUDIES "0 ,,," , '~ .or; " ,' ~ .. /
A f,!~

APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS: SIGNATURE

~XT1ER,NAL EXA INER

W01 'r r\(jL N~~0
INTERNAL EXAMINAR

Page 52

fertility, and s h ortage of farm labor. Each of these constraints will be

discussed in sh ort in th e following subsec tion s.

4.4.1 Problems associated with inputs supply

Regarding the problem s associa ted with inputs supply, a ll th e respondents

reported multiple problem s. Almost a ll of the hou seh olds rep orted that the

problems are high prices of inputs , de laying of input supply from the

a ppropria te crop ping seasons, insufficient supply and lower quality of seeds,

and lack of competitive su ppliers .

A. High prices of inputs

One of the major problems challenging the ongoi ng agricultural extension

services in the study a rea is the ever increasing prices of in puts beyond the

financial capacity of the majority of the farm households. Wh en the

researcher con ducted focus groups discussion a nd key inform ants

interview, all of them identified that all constraints and problems of the

existing agricultural extension approach revolve around the degree of inputs

price affordability.

Out of the total sample households interviewed, 102 (100%) of them

reported that the critical problem hindering them not to use fertilizer and

improved seeds these days is their prices. According to them, parli cu larly

the price of these two important inputs is going beyond their purchasing

capacity and hence compelling them to \\'i thd raw from partic ipatin g to the

program.

Though there is a credit particularly for these two inputs , the ex isting 10

percent in terest rate is becoming unaffordable for the maiority of

sm allholder farmers and hence many of them are rejecting the use of these

inputs because of their prices and also shortage (particularly improved

seed).

46

Page 53

With regard to this , the researcher t ried to collect a time sen es data fo r
furth er understanding of the issu e and presented in the fo llowing table.

Table 4 . 11: Prices of inputs per quintal at local leve l

Crop Year Prices of Fertilize r Pnce of
imp roved seed

lin Eth. Birrl of m a ize (in
Elh. Birrl

DAr UREA

1994/95 236.00 220.00 N.A

1995/ 96 241.00 22 4 .00 525

1996/97 255 .41 240.75 497

1997/98 253.4 1 196.17 547

1998/99 247 .80 163.34 547

1999/00 274.75 171.30 578

2000/01 1280.10 208.75 578

2001/02 25 1.90 194.70 560

2002/03 251 .55 197.95 578

2003/04 30~! .55 275.85 57 H

2004/05 36.3 .40 326.50 578

2005/06 3iH.70 324.50 650

2006/07 429.30 378.00 72 0

2007/ 08 Si2 .00 580. 00 850

Sou rce: N ek~mte b:-a nc h Al Sea a nd Improved Seed E nlerpnse

Note: N.A= Not l\\'2:l n b lc

Price of DAP in qu illlal Q.' the early beginning o f the program (1 994/95) was
birr 236 .00. Bu t in 2 007/08, it ill creased by bi r r 6,"\6 pC!" quinta l and

47

Page 104

IV. Points of discussion with Extension agents

1. How long h ave you been working as agricultural ex lcns ion agcnl'?

2 . What level of education do you have?

3. What are the sources of training and updating of tcchnical sk ill s?

4. What are the common too ls of communica tion wilh fa rmers? Why?

5 . Are you satisfied with your work?

6. How d o you evaluate your performance? Do you think the performa nce

measure increase your effic iency?

7. Describe the problems that undermine your performance, from ·your

experience, in underta king the program?

8 . Wha t do you th ink the perception of farmc rs about th e exte nsio n

program?

9. What are the contributions of exte nsion program in a lleviatin g the

h ousehold food insufficiency?

V. Points of discuss ion with farmers.

1. How do you communicate with exlension agcnl.s·)

2. Do you believe that agricultura l technologics increasc production'? How?

3. Did you take credit for purchasing agricultural inputs? How was the repayment and

in terest rate?

4. What are your sourccs of rcpayment') How do you repay when crop fai lure occurs')

5. How do you see the success o f the following,? I"crtili%cr, Impmv('o sceos ano CrccJit ')

l Oll

Page 105

I, the unders igned, declare that the thesi s is my original wo rk, ha
s not been presented ror

a degree in any other uni versity and that all sources of materials
used for the thesis have

be duly acknowledged.

Declared by:

7eJ~ CI,ol;

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