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                            QUANTUM CORRELATIONS OF LIGHTS IN MACROSCOPIC ENVIRONMENTS
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Michigan Technological University Michigan Technological University

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Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's
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Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's
Reports

2014

QUANTUM CORRELATIONS OF LIGHTS IN MACROSCOPIC QUANTUM CORRELATIONS OF LIGHTS IN MACROSCOPIC

ENVIRONMENTS ENVIRONMENTS

Yong Meng Sua
Michigan Technological University

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Sua, Yong Meng, "QUANTUM CORRELATIONS OF LIGHTS IN MACROSCOPIC ENVIRONMENTS",
Dissertation, Michigan Technological University, 2014.
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QUANTUM CORRELATIONS OF LIGHTS IN
MACROSCOPIC ENVIRONMENTS



By

Yong Meng Sua







A DISSERTATION

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In Engineering Physics



MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

2014

© 2014 Yong Meng Sua

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polarization of the photons but only convinced that the photon pair must be co-

polarized or anti-polarized.

Initial efforts using two photon emission of cascaded atomic calcium to

produce entangled pairs of photons was successfully demonstrated [122]. Amid the

success of producing entangled photon pair, it is conceded that many drawbacks exist

in these systems. These include complex experiment setup, inconsistent and broad

emission angle which severely limit the detection efficiency of the photon pair [123].

Consequently, a vastly improved method of optical parametric down conversion

through χ(2) nonlinearity in crystal is used to convert a pump photon into a pair of

photon [50, 58]. Although the photon pair production rate using optical parametric

down conversion is much higher, stringent phase matching condition affects the

photons emission angle and results in multimode emission of photon pair. Thus,

necessarily reduces the collection efficiency and limits its application in single mode

preferred quantum information processing such as quantum metrology [124].

4.2.3 Fiber based Correlated and Entangled Photon source

Correlated and entangled photon-pair sources are essential for

implementation of quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution. Particularly,

correlated and entangled photon-pair at telecom wavelengths are coincide with the

low-loss transmission window (1.3 μm and 1.5 μm) of the optical fiber. Therefore,

have the potential in realizing the global scale QKD through currently available

optical fiber networks.

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Direct generation of correlated and entangled photon-pair in optical fiber

attracted great interest due to its better spatial mode definition and inherent

compatibility with existing fiber optics technologies for long distance transmission,

storage and processing. Correlated and entangled photon-pair generation in

dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF), and highly nonlinear microstructure fiber (HNMSF)

are realized using spontaneous four-waves mixing (SFWM) through χ(3) nonlinearity

[120, 125]. HNMSF has the advantage of high nonlinearity (≈100 W/km) due to its

much smaller core size, therefore required shorter interaction length, where  is third

order nonlinear coefficient of a medium. However, smaller core size, asymmetric

mode profile and inhomogeneous microstructure limit its compatibility with single

mode fiber. In contrast, DSF is compatible with standard optical fiber, even though

has much lower nonlinearity (≈2 W/km). Therefore, several hundred meters of

interaction length is needed for photon pair generation in DSF.

In this work, we generate correlated and entangled photon-pair using a short

dispersion shifted, highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), which has advantage of high

nonlinearity and yet highly compatible with the standard optical fiber. Hence, HNLF

could be an outstanding candidate for fiber based correlated and entangled photon

pair source at telecom wavelengths.

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2. Copyright permission from the Intech to reproduce published texts, figures
and data in Chapter 3 of this dissertation.



3. Copyright permission from the Optical Society of America (OSA) to
reproduce texts, figures and data published in Chapter 4 of this dissertation.

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190 
 

4. Copyright permission from the Optical Society of America (OSA) to
reproduce texts, figures and data published in Chapter 5 of this dissertation.

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