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TitlePublic Management and Performance: Research Directions
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.7 MB
Total Pages302
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Half-title
Title
Copyright
Contents
Figures
Tables
Contributors
1 Introduction
	Introduction
	Impetus for the book
	On public service performance
	Judgements on organizational performance
	Management and public service performance research
		Regulation, markets and environments
		Goal ambiguity
		Resources
		Internal organization
			Structure
			Red tape
		External organization
			Networking
		Management
			Human resource management
			Performance management
			Strategy content
		Methods for investigating the management–performance hypotheses
	REFERENCES
2 Extending goal ambiguity research in government: from organizational goal ambiguity to programme goal ambiguity
	Observations about the goals of public organizations
	Effects of goal ambiguity on organizations
	Research on goal ambiguity in government organizations
		Analysing organizational goal ambiguity
		Advancing analysis of the political environment, work characteristics and goals
	Analysing goal ambiguity in public programmes
		Defining programme goal ambiguity
		Analysing antecedents of federal programme goal ambiguity
		Encouraging results
		The next step: relating programme goal ambiguity to programme performance
		More encouraging results: relationships between programme goal ambiguity and performance
	Conclusion
	REFERENCES
3 Budgets and financial management
	Introduction
	Defining PFM: issues for modelling
	What is PFM performance?
	The evolution of PFM performance
	Incentives
	Performance information
	Evidence on performance information and allocative efficiency
	Evidence on performance information and technical efficiency
	The role of politics
	Flexibility
		The enduring role of controls
	Contextual factors
	Conclusion
	REFERENCES
4 Organizational structure and public service performance
	Introduction
	Theories of structure
		What is organizational structure?
			Centralization
			Formalization
			Specialization
		Hypothetical effects of structure on performance
			Centralization
			Formalization
			Specialization
	Empirical evidence on organizational structure and performance
		Empirical studies and their characteristics
		Measuring structure
		Evidence from the studies
			Centralization
			Formalization
			Specialization
	Future research directions
	Conclusions
	REFERENCES
5 Red tape: the bane of public organizations?
	Introduction
	Red tape
		Definitions, dimensions and measures
	The proposed ills of red tape
	Empirical evidence on red tape and performance
	Research agenda
	REFERENCES
6 Managerial networking, managing  the environment, and programme performance: a summary of findings and an agenda
	Introduction
	The base model
	Defining key terms
	What do we know? Managerial networking M2
		Performance questions
		Measurement questions
	What we know: managing the environment
	An agenda for research
	Conclusion
	REFERENCES
7 Public service motivation and performance
	Origin and development of the PSM concept
	Theoretical and practical bases
	Empirical evidence
		Evidence on employee performance
		Evidence on organizational performance
	Implications and suggestions for future research
	Propositions for future research
	Conclusion
	REFERENCES
8 Organizational diversity and public service performance
	Introduction
	Defining organizational diversity
	Measuring organizational diversity
	Frameworks for understanding organizational diversity and performance
		Social categorization and similarity/attraction theories
		Information and decision-making theory
		The business case for diversity
	A key contingency in the diversity–performance relationship: diversity management programmes and policies
	The evolution of empirical research on organizational diversity
	Future directions for research
	REFERENCES
9 Performance management: does it work?
	Introduction
	Theoretical effects of performance management
		Selecting indicators
		Setting targets
		Taking action
	Evidence on the effects of performance management
		Selecting indicators
		Setting targets
		Taking action
	Conclusion
	REFERENCES
10 Strategy: which strategic stances matter?
	Introduction
	Models of strategy content in public organizations
		Public management models of strategy content
		The application of generic models of strategy content to public organizations
		Propositions in the literature on strategy content and performance
		Questions of measurement
	Empirical evidence
		Data sources
		Independent effect studies
		Moderated models
		Summary
	An agenda for research
	Concluding comment
	REFERENCES
11 Methods
	Introduction
	Methodological issues in public management research
		Endogeneity
		Non-linearity
		Independence of observations
	Hierarchical linear modelling
		Using HLM in our work on management and performance
		Management at multiple levels
			AP = AH
			OP = AH + RD
	Experimental methods
	Developing new datasets
	Old dogs, new tricks and little baby puppies
	Qualitative methods
	REFERENCES
12 Conclusion: enriching the field
	Introduction
	Public management and performance: from simplicity to sophistication
		Disaggregating the dimensions of management
		The performance kaleidoscope
		The impact of management: curves and tipping points
		Management: working alone or working on the chain gang?
	Public management and performance: towards theoretical and methodological enrichment
		Broadening the theoretical base
		Strengthening methodology
		Concluding comment: prospects for progressing to ‘normal science’
	REFERENCES
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 151

Managerial networking137

support. In short, managerial networking matters more in structural net-
works (O’Toole and Meier 2004a: 487–8).

Managing outward into the networked setting involves managers inter-
acting with others in sets of exchange relationships. The logic of viewing
managerial networking as an exchange relationship or as a set of games (see
Scharpf 1993) implies that the external actors – the network nodes – also
expect to receive something of value from the interaction. Because actors in
the regular pattern of interdependence are likely to over-represent the better
organized, they are also likely to represent especially well the more privileged
elements in the managerial setting. This logic suggests that managerial net-
working will have distributional consequences – that network interactions
will benefit the more advantaged clientele at the expense of the less well off.
Because school systems have multiple goals and the performance-appraisal
system includes data on different types of students and different outcomes,
O’Toole and Meier (2004b) were able to investigate the distributional conse-
quences of managerial networking. They found that networking was posi-
tively related to higher test scores for Anglo students (as well as overall test
scores) and three measures of performance for college-bound students. In
contrast, managerial networking was not related to pass rates for Latinos,
blacks, or low-income students (O’Toole and Meier 2004b: 688).4 These find-
ings suggest the operation of a politics of public management whereby the
more powerful political forces are likely to exert greater influence on man-
agement as managers increase their activities in the network (see Hawes
2008).

Managerial networking also appears to interact with managerial capacity
(see Meier and O’Toole 2009a). As the size of the central office bureaucracy
increases, the impact of managerial networking on Texas Assessment of
Academic Skills (TAAS) exams increases by about 40 per cent. Such increases
in central office staff appear to double the impact of managerial networking
on student attendance and increase it by a factor of four on the percentage of
students scoring at the top of college board exams. These results make intui-
tive sense; to get the most out of network interactions, management needs the
capacity to determine which actors to approach and what types of exchanges
could benefit the organization.

Goerdel (2006) extended the work on managerial networking by including
a strategic element. She argued that managerial networking would matter

4 Networking was associated with lower dropout rates, a disadvantaged indicator, but was not related to
attendance rates, another low-end indicator.

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