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TitleProfiling Consumers: The Role of Personal Values in Consumer Preferences
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Page 105


the relationship between consumer values and the purchasing of comparable food

products. In particular, this study tests two aspects of the effect of values on consumer

purchasing: 1. Consumer values, and 2. Consumer perceptions of product values.

Consumer perceptions of product values were investigated in order to test whether

product values are perceived by consumers in a similar vein as product personality. This

is because product-consumer congruence is a prevalent explanation for consumer

preferences of non-utilitarian product aspects (see Section 5.2.1). In order to facilitate

the measurement of consumer product value congruence, product values are measured

along the ten basic human values defined by Schwartz (1994). We hypothesise that

when looking at product pairs:

H1: When rating Fast Moving Consumer Goods that are the same in terms of their

utilitarian function, but different in terms of their branding, participants perceive and

rate those products to be significantly different in terms of the ten basic human values.

The differences in ratings of values of different products add explanatory depth to the

description of non-utilitarian aspects of the rated products.

H2: Consumers values predict real world purchasing of the same food product from one

brand over purchasing of the food product from another brand for: chopped tomatoes,

baked beans, cola, and cheddar cheese. Different values will be predictive of purchasing

for different product pairs.

5.2.2 Method Sample

4,740 participants who were registered users of a large British supermarket

chain’s rewards system were recruited. In addition, participants had subscribed to a

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customer research panel, agreeing to participate in online surveys. Ages ranged from

20-24 (2.3%) to over 65 (9%), with the remaining age groups being ages 25-29 (6%), 30-

34 (9%), 35-39 (11%), 40 – 44 (13.7%), 45-49 (13.6%), 50-54(12.9), 55-59 (12.3) and 60-

64 (9.7%) year olds. 71.4% of participants were female. Overall, 83.8% of participants

reported to live in England, 7.2% in Scotland, and 9% in Wales. Measures Motives, Values, Preferences Inventory (MVPI; Hogan & Hogan, 1996)

The MVPI measures the ten basic human values defined by Schwartz (1994). See

Table 5-1 for a list of the ten value dimensions after Schwartz (1994) and Hogan and

Hogan (1996). Although the naming of value dimensions differs slightly, both

frameworks essentially measure the same values.

Participants rated themselves on the 10 value dimensions using a 5-point Likert

scale that ranged from ‘disagree’ to ‘agree’. The ten value dimensions included

Affiliation (seeking social interaction), Altruism (motivated by helping others), Hedonism

(motivated by enjoyment), Power (placing importance on accomplishments and status),

Recognition (placing importance on attention and praise), Security (needing

predictability and structure), Tradition (being dedicated to strong beliefs), Commerce

(paying attention to business opportunities and money), Science (drawn to research,

knowledge and data) and Aesthetics (drawn to design, artistic expression and looks).

The MVPI has 200 items, 20 items for each value. Value scores for participants were

obtained by summing responses to the 20 items measuring each value. The MVPI has

been used in over 200 validated studies, and demonstrates good test re-test reliability

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