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TitlePRODUCTION OF TOILET SOAP
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CHAPTER 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soap is mainly used for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but

soaps are also important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by

treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils

are composed of triglycerides: three molecules of fatty acids attached to a single

molecule of glycerol. The alkaline solution, often lye, promotes a chemical reaction

known as saponification. In saponification, fats are broken down (hydrolyzed) yielding

crude soap. Fats are transformed into salts of fatty acids and glycerol is liberated,

leaving glycerin as a byproduct. Soaps are key components of most lubrication greases,

which are usually emulsions of calcium and lithium soaps in a mineral oil. Lithium-

based greases are widely used. Many other metal ions are used, including aluminium,

sodium, and mixtures of various metal ions. Such soaps are sometimes classified as

thickeners, meaning that they elevate the viscosity of the oil. In ancient times,

lubricating greases were prepared by the addition of lime to olive oil.

Toilet Soaps, to this class belongs to the finer kinds of scented soaps, which have

emollient properties. They are rarely made direct by the perfumer, the body or basis

being a well-selected white soap, subsequently cleaned and purified. For the choicest

grades, the body should be made of a mixture of olive and sweet-almond oil, as the fat

stock. Lard and beef tallow make the next best stock; and for palm soap a small quantity

of bleached palm oil is to be added to them. Cocoa oil and pale yellow resin

saponaceous matters also enter into the composition of certain toilet soaps. These body

soaps may be obtained as wanted from any well-conducted soap factory. To be adapted

to the purposes of perfumery they must be perfectly neutral, firm, free from unpleasant

odor and all tendency to crust in cold, or sweat in damp weather. They should,

moreover, give a rich lather without wasting too rapidly in the water. Soaps, generally,

in their original condition, are usually deficient in many of those points; and must, for

the purposes of perfumery, undergo a refining procests.





http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_%28chemistry%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleaning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lubricant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaline
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lye
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponification
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrolysis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycerol
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-based_grease
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium-based_grease
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olive_oil

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5.1 SPECIFICATION OF PIPELINES

Table 5.1: Pipeline Specifications

Pipeline Location Fluid

Transported

Mass Flow

Rate,

(kg/hr)

Fluid

Velocity,

m/s

Diameter,

In.

Schedule

Number

Material Of

Construction

Between the

saponification

vessel and the

static separator

Wet soap 3707.62 9.67 8 40-S 304 Stainless

Steel

Between the static

separator and the

washing column

Crude soap 3672.4 9.67 8 40-S 304 stainless

steel

Between the

washing colunm

and the centrifuge

Washed soap 2812.26 2.73 6 40-S 304 stainless

steel

Between centrifuge

and neutralizer

Wet soap 2688.13 2.23 6 40-S 304 stainless

steel

Between neutralizer

and the vacuum

shelf dryer

Soap 2696.07 2.22 6 40-S 304 stainless

steel

From vacuum shelf Toilet soap 2083.33 2.34 1.5 40-S 304 stainless

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M

n (NaOH) = 8.064 kg mol 1000g

Hr 40g 1kg

n = 201.6mol/hr

Therefore,

1 mol H3PO4 201.6 NaOH

1mol NaOH

n (H3PO4) = 201.6mol/hr

m (H3PO4) = n × M

= 201.6 mol 98g 1kg

Hr mol 1000g

m (H3PO4) = 19.76kg/hr



From Stiochiometric Ratio

1mol NaH2PO4 201.6 NaOH

1 mol NaOH

= 201.6mol/hr

M (NaH2PO4) = 121g/mol

n = m / M

m (NaH2PO4) = 121g 201.6mol 1kg

mol hr 1000kg

m (NaH2PO4) = 24.349kg/hr

Then,

Total Material Balance

W.S + H3PO4 + Additives = S + NaH2PO4

2688.13 + 19.76 + Additives = 2696.04 + 24.394

Additives = 12.54kg/hr



BALANCE ON VACUUM DRYER

Total Material Balance

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