Download Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space: Paris, 14–18 June 1965 PDF

TitleProceedings of the Second International Symposium on Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space: Paris, 14–18 June 1965
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LanguageEnglish
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Page 1

PROCEEDINGS OF THE

SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
1\

BASIC ENVIRONMENT AL PROBLEMS OF

MAN IN SPACE
PARIS, 14 - 18 JUNE 1965

ORGANIZED BY THE
INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL FEDERATION AND THE

INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF ASTRONAUTICS

WITH THE SUPPORT AND COOPERATION OF UNESCO, THE
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, THE

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, THE
WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION, AND THE

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNIC.\TIO~ UNION

EDITED BY

HILDING BJURSTEDT, M. D.
PROFESSOR, KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET

STOCKHOLlI.l

WITH 180 FIGURES

1967
SPRINGER-VERLAG WIEN GMBH

Page 2

ISBN 978-3-7091-3034-6 ISBN 978-3-7091-3032-2 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-7091-3032-2

All rights reserved

This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced
in any form (including photostatic or microfilm form)

without written permission of the publishers

© 1967 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Originally published by Springer-Verlag Wien New York in 1967

Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1967

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 65·21971

Page 269

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Page 270

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Page 538

530 D. G. REA:

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Aneroauties and Spaee Administration
Grant NsG 101-61 and Contraet NASr 220.

References

I. LOWELL, P. : Mars as the Abode of Life. N ew Y ork: The Maemillan Company. 1908.
2. MILLER, S.: A Produetion of Amino Aeids under Possible Primitive Earth Con·

ditions. Seienee 117, 528 (1953).
3. ORO, J.: Synthesis of Organie Compounds by Eleetrie Diseharges. Nature 197,

862 (1963).
4. PONNAMPERUMA, C., R. M. LEMMON, R. MARINER, and M. CALVIN: Formation of

Adenine by Eleetron Irradiation of Methane, Ammonia and Water. Proe. Nat.
Aead. Sei. 49, 737 (1963).

5. HAWRYLEWICZ, E., R. GOWDY, and R. EHRLICH: Mieroorganisms Under a Simu·
lated Martian Environment. Nature 193, 497 (1962).

6. YOUNG, R. S., P. DEAL, J. BELL, and J. ALLEN: Effeet ofDiurnal Freeze.Thawing
on Survival and Growth of Seleeted Baeteria. Nature 199, 1078 (1963).

7. PACKER, K, S. SCHER, and C. SAGAN: Biologieal Contamination of Mars. 11. Cold
and Aridity as Constraints on the Survival of Terrestrial Mieroorganisms in
Simulated Martian Environments. Tearus 2, 293 (1963).

8. RANK, D. H., B. S. RAO, P. SITARAM, A. F. SLOMBA, and T. A. WIGGINS: Quad·
rupole and Indueed Dipole Speetrum of Moleeular Hydrogen. J. Opt. SO('. Amer.
02, 1004 (1962).

9. KIEss, C. C., C. H. CORLISS, and H. K. KIEss: High.Dispersion Speetra of Jupiter.
Ap. J. 132, 221 (1960).

10. HERZBERG, G. : Speetroseopie Evidenee of Moleeular Hydrogen in the Atmospheres
of Uranus and Neptune. Ap. J. 110, 337 (1952).

11. COURTOY, C. P.: Le speetre de C120/6 entre 3500 et 8000 em-1 et les eonstantes
moh~eulaires de eette moMeule. Canad. J. Phys. 30, 608 (1957).

12. PLASS, G. N.: Models for Speetral Band Absorption. J. Opt. Soe. Amer. 48, 690
(1958).

13. BELLAMY, L. J.: The Infrared Speetra of Complex Moleeules. New York: John
Wiley and Sons, Ine. 1958.

14. BLOUT, E. R., and G. R. BIRD: Infrared Mierospeetroseopy H. J. Opt. Soe. Amer.
41, 547 (1951).

15. REA, D. G., and W. J. WELCH: The Refleetion and Emission of Eleetromagnetie
Radiation by Planetary Surfaees and Clouds. Spaee Sei. Rev. 2, 558 (1963).

16. REA, D. G., T. BELSKY, and M. CALVIN: Interpretation of the 3 to 4 Mieron
Infrared Speetrum of Mars. Seienee 141, 923 (1963).

17. GOTTLIEB, M.: Optieal Properties of Lithium Fluoride in thc Infrared. J. Opt.
Soe. Amer. 00, 343 (1960).

18. LYON, R. J. P.: Evaluation of Infrared Speetrophotometry for Compositional
Analysis of Lunar and Planetary Soils: Rough and Powdered Surfaees. Final
Report, Part H, of NASA Contraet NASr 49(04) (1964).

19. KAPLAN, L. D., G. MÜNCH, and H. SPINRAD : An Analysis of the Speetrum of
Mars. Ap. J. 139, I (1964).

20. SPINRAD, H., G. MÜNCH, and L. D. KAPLAN: Deteetion of Water Vapor on Mars.
Ap. J. 137, 1319 (1963).

21. SINTON, W. M., and J. STRONG: Radiometrie Observations of Mars. Ap. J. 131,
459 (1960).

22. REA, D. G.: The Darkening Wave on Mars. Nature 201, 1014 (1964).
23. KUIPER, G. P.: The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets. Edited by G. P.

KUIPER. University of Chieago Press. 1952.
24. DRAPER, A. L., J. A. ADAMCIK, and E. K. GIBSON: Comparison of the Speetra

of Mars and a Goethite·Hematite Mixture in thc 1-2 11 Region. Iearus 3, 63
(1964).

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Infl"tJ'pd ~I)(\d I'OH('OP~' in thn Biological }ijxplorat.ion of MurR 1)31

25. SINTON, W. M.: Furthel' Evidl'nce ofVegetation on Mars. Science 130,1234 (1959).
26. COLTH1'l', N. B.: Idmtification of Aldehyde in Mars Vegetation Regions. Science

134, 529 (1961).
27. REA, D. G .. B. T. O'LKO\HY, and W. M. SINTON: Mars, the Origin of the 3.58

and 3.69 Mieron Minima in tlle Infrared Spectra. Seiencc 147, 1286 (1965).
2H, VAN TAfli,mL, H. A., mul ,1. W. RAURBlTRY: 'rho Composition of thc Martian

i'llll'facp. [ual'lIS 3. :W4 (191i4).
29. HOVlfl, W .. \.: lnfml'pd EmiHHion Rpectra of Organic Solid<'! from 5.0 to 6.6 Microns.

i'lciene<' 143. ,587 (19M).
30. REA, D. (:,: Spectroseopy as a Toul for Detecting Ext,raterrestrial Life. Space

Biology. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press. 1963.
31. GATES, D. M., H .. I. KEEGAN .• J. C. SCHLETER, and V. R. WEIDNER: Spectra

Properties of Plant,... Appl. Opties 4, 11 (1965).
:32. KAMEN, M. D.: I'l'iIlH1I'~' PI"Ot'eSHPH in Photosynthesis. New York: Aeademie

Pr('s~. 19(i:3.
33. GIFFORD, F.: Thp Surfa('p-'remperature Climate of Mars. Ap. J. 123, 154 (1956).
34. HINTON, W. M.: Reeont Radiometrie Studies of the Planets and the Moon. Chap-

t8r 11 in Planots and Satellitcs, Vol. IJI of the Solar System, edited by G. P.
KUIPER, and B. M. MmDLEHlTRsT. University of Chicago Press. 1961.

35. FISCHER, W. A., H. M. MOXHAM, F. POLCYN, and G. H. LANDIs: Infrared Surveys
of Hawaiian VObl.JlO(''' i'lcipnce 14-6. 733 (19(H).

Discussioll

PACE: How i,,; it that SnlTON could resolve the three bands from the dark areas
of Mars but, not from Hw light nl"flas when ostcnsibly hfl used the same deteetion
system 1

REA: Some oi' the original datn must be rejeeted due to inadequate resolution-
the slit widths used wer8 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm, depending on the particular spectrum.
When this is done th8re is no statistical difference between the bright and the dark
areas.

TOBlAS : If you wir;h to observe Mars from a satellite, is there any advantage to
look from a particular angle with respect to the incident light in order to take ad-
vantage of POIHl'ization 01" ,;pecial reflection?

RK>\.: In Ill~' opinion polul"iznt.ion ii; not a good techniquc foI' observing the Martian
surface. Thl'l'o iH conHiderable difficulty and ambiguity in separating atmosphere
from Hurfac(1 ofti 'et.~, und thPHe characteristics should be minimal for any space craft
experiment. Wit h regard t,o '"'pecial reflection I see no reason for selecting a particular
angle. But somt' angles 01" yi('wing and illumination will be preferable for determining
the topographical picturo.

TOBlAS: 18 there any reason to look at the dark side of Mars? Assuming technical
feasibility, wonlt! it bn worthwhilo to shine light with selected wavelength onto the
planet anti obsf'l'\'p Hoatt.el'ing" 01' stimulated emmision?

HJJ:,\: 1 He .. no 11ILrticIlltlr ndnmtage of experiments l'Inploying illuminations.
SomE' 1l1l1lSlUlI d"polarizatioll l"ffl'ds may arise, bnt th8ir interpretation would be
mo:4 (liftielllt. HO\\,('\'('I", it iH V(\l'Y desil'able to look at thfl dark side when obtaining
sllrface temperal ure maps. Tl'mperatnre differences duo to variations in thermal
properties of th(' ~mrfa('n will be accentuated on the unlit side, and in particular for
10cal times just before sunrise.

FRANK: What is your pOf'iition to the possible findings on Mars of chlorophyll
ami l'spncially low(',1' plantH ':

HEA: Chlol'ophyll ir; not, Iloco<'!sarily excluded. Liphflns do use chlorophyll in theil'
photo-centho::!('s praeess hllt. the centres are generally buried and they do not dominate
the rofiect.erl flpl'ct.l'a t hp wa~' they do fOI" leavefl. Oue eannot say at the present time
t.hat ther(' i" HO dllOl'oph~'ll on Mars.

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