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TitleProceedings of the First Asia Dairy Goat Conference - FAO
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Table of Contents
                            Proceedings of the 1st Asia Dairy Goat Conference
	PREFACE
CONTENTS
	Keynote Address - Dairy Goats in Asia: Multifunctional Relevance and Contribution to Food and Nutrition Security
	Plenary 1 - Linking Smallholders to Markets – Opportunities and Challenges
	Plenary 2 - Challenges Facing Dairy Goat Farmers in Malaysia
	Plenary 3 - Dairy Goat Farming in Australia: Current Challenges and Future
	Plenary 4 - Improving Dairy Goat Productivity with Concomitant Mitigation of Methane
	Plenay 5 - The Possibility of Controlling Flow of Metabolic H into Various Pathways in Rumen Fermentation to Improve Dairy Goat Productivity
	Plenary 6 - IDF Perspectives on the Global Dairy Situation and Development Perspectives for Non-Cow Milk
	Plenary 7 - Goat Milk and Human Nutrition
	Plenary 8 - Microbiota of Goat’s Milk and Goat’s Milk Cheese
	Plenary 9 - The Welfare of Dairy Goats
	Country Report 1 - Dairy Goats in Indonesia: Potential, Opportunities and Challenges
	Country Report 2 - Dairy Goat in Vietnam: Potential, Opportunities and Challenges
	Country Report 3 - Dairy Goats in Thailand: Potential, Opportunities and Challenges
	Country Report 4 - Dairy Goats in Pakistan: Potential, Opportunities and Challenges
	Lead Paper 1 - Perspectives for Increasing Nutrient Use Efficiency in Dairy Goat Production
	Paper 1 - Use of Indigofera zollingeriana as a Forage Protein Sourcein Dairy Goat Rations
	Paper 2 - Protein Requirement for the Maintenance and Gain of Growing Goats Fed Leucaena leucocephalade Roughage-Based Diets in Thailand
	Paper 3 - Yield and Quality of Forage affected by Molybdenum Fertiliser and Legume Genotypes
	Paper 4 - The Use of Rain Tree Pods as a Feed Supplement for Dairy Goats
	Paper 5 - Effect of Jerusalem Artichoke Supplementation on Methanogenic Achaea in Dairy Goats using Real Time PCR Technique
	Paper 6 - Production and Quality of Pasture with Introduced Legumes for Dairy Goats
	Paper 7 - Evaluation of Tree Leaves as a Crude Protein and Energy Supplement to the Low Quality Diets of Dairy Goats
	Paper 8 - Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia Leaves as Crude Protein Supplement to Low Quality Diets of Goats
	Paper 9 - Effect of Intersowing Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) with Dwarf Napier Grass on Yield and Quality for Biomass Use
	Paper 10 - Effect of Feeding Pattern on Rumen Microorganism Population in Saanen Goats
	Paper 11 - of Leucaena and Acacia mangium Willd Foliages on Microbial N Supply, Digestibility and N Balance in Saanen Goats
	Paper 12 - Enhancing Performance of Dairy Goat by Biscuit Feeding as Fibre Source
	Paper 13 - Development of a New Quantitative Competitive PCR Assay for Rumen Butyrate-Producing Bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens
	Lead Paper 2 - Reproductive, Production and Economic Performances of the Damascus (Shami) Goats in Cyprus
	Paper 14 - Genotypic Characterisation of Ardi Goats in Saudi Arabia
	Paper 15 - Effect of Estrus Synchronisation with Sponge and CIDR on Pregnancy Rate, Sex and Birth Type of Kids in Iranian Adani (Persian Gulf) Goats
	Paper 16 - Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Growth Traits of Iranian Adani(Persian Gulf) Goats
	Paper 17 - Effects of Synchronisation and Artificial Insemination with Alpine and Saanen Semen on Reproductive Traits of Iranian Goat Breeds
	Paper 18 - Milk Production of Local Qomi and F1 and F2 Qomi × Saanen Goats in Iran
	Paper 19 - Serum Protein Polymorphism in Iraqi Local Goats Using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Transferrin (β-Globulin) Polymorphism
	Paper 20 - Phenotypic and Genetic Marker of Dairy Goat Performances Based on the Polymorphism of Acaca Gene
	Paper 21 - Effect of Body Condition Score on Milk Yield, Protein and Fat Contents in Etawah Crossbred Dairy Goats
	Paper 22 - Detection and Identification of Pregnancy-Associated Glycoprotein as a Biomarker for Early Stage Pregnancy in Goats
	Paper 23 - West African Dwarf Goat Milk Production, Composition and Kid Growth during the Dry Season in Western Highland of Cameroon
	Paper 24 - Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Milk Production Test Day Records ofIranian Adani (Persian Gulf) Goats
	Paper 25 - Sexual Behaviour of Indigenous Does and Ewes under Mixed Flock System
	Paper 26 - Genetic and Phenotypic Parameter Estimates for Birth Weight in Iranian Indigenous Goats
	Lead Paper 3 - Taurine-Rich Goat Milk
	Paper 27 - “Feed less Food” – Effect of a Low Concentrate Diet on Milk Quality, Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Performance of Dairy Goats
	Paper 28 - Comparative Studies of Milk Components of West African Dwarf Goats and Sheep
	Paper 29 - Introduction of Goat Milk Pasteurisation Equipment to the Etawah Crossbred Dairy Goat Farmers in East Java Province, Indonesia
	Paper 30 - Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content in Ferment Goat Milk
	Paper 31 - Composition and Quality of Hand- and Machine-Milked Goat Milk
	Paper 32 - Using Ultraviolet Irradiation in Combination with Pasteurisation to Reduce Microorganism Content and Extend Shelf Life of Goat Milk
	Paper 33 - Goat Milk Production and Utilisation in Nomadic Pastoral Society of Kerman Province of Iran
	Paper 34 - Effect of Feeding Cassava Peel Chips on Nutrient Consumption and Milk Production in Dairy Goats
	Paper 35 - Comparison of Nutrition Quality between Cow and Goat Dairy Products:A Meta-analysis
	Paper 36 - Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Efficacy of Anthelmintics in Dairy Goats in Pakistan
	Paper 37 - Phylogenetic Analysis of Serotype Asia 1 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: Asia Diversity and the Iran Perspective
	Paper 38 - Johne’s disease in Goats: A Histopathological and Serological Study
	Paper 39 - Sero-epidemiological Investigation and Risk Factor Analysis of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants and Their Owners in a District Of Pakistan
	Lead Paper 4 - Improvement in Rural Livelihood through Dairy Goat Farming in India
	Paper 40 - Housing Advancements for Smallholder Dairy Goat Farming in the Tropics
	Paper 41 - Rural Farmer Preferences Regarding Purpose of Rearing and Choice of Body Coat Colour in Indian Rural Goats
	Paper 42 - Developing a Model of a Goat-Sharing System Based on Farmer Groups to Improve Etawah Crossbred Goats in the Village
	Paper 43 - Normative Pen Mating Behaviour in Local Goats of the Rohilkhand Region
	Paper 44 - Emerging Stall-fed Goat Farming for Milk and Meat in the Periurban Districts of Karnataka, India
	Paper 45 - The Role of Goat in Poverty Reduction among Smallholder Farmers in Egypt
	Paper 46 - Integration of Etawah Crossbred Dairy Goat with Cocoa in East Java Province, Indonesia
	Paper 47 - Dairy Goat Feeding Characteristics in Malang District East Java, Indonesia
	Paper 48 - Lactation Performance of Region, India under Semi-intensive System
	Paper 49 - Dairy Goat – A Potential Candidate for the Dairy Science Park Peshawar, Pakistan
	Paper 50 - Trends in Goat Production in Islamic Republic of Iran
	Paper 51 - Impact of Prompt Delivery of Veterinary Services on Morbidity and Mortality Rate in the Flocks of Indigenous Goat Farms in Central Punjab, Pakistan
	Paper 52 - Heat Tolerance Coefficient of Pregnant and Nonpregnant Dairy Goat in Hot Environment
	Paper 53 - Association between Growth Hormone Gene and Post-Weaning Body Weight Gains in Savanna Goats
	Paper 54 - Production of Black Goats by the Embryo Transfer Technique
	Paper 55 - Fermentation of Ensiled Rice Straw in an in Vitro system containing rumen microbes
	Paper 56 - Quality of Caprine Sex-Separated Spermatozoa Obtained by Free-Flow Electrophoresis
	Paper 57 - Morphological Characteristics of Shami Goat in Malaysia
	Paper 58 - Preliminary Study on Mortality and Adaptability of Newly Imported Shami Breed in Malaysia
	Author Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Proceedings of the

FIRST ASIA DAIRY GOAT CONFERENCE










April 9 – 12, 2012

Corus Hotel Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Page 2

E-PROCEEDINGS








FIRST ASIA DAIRY GOAT CONFERENCE




9-12 APRIL 2012


CORUS HOTEL KUALA LUMPUR

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108



Proceedings of the 1st Asia Dairy Goat Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9–12 April 2012


Paper 14


Genotypic Characterisation of Ardi Goats in Saudi Arabia


Aljumaah, R.S.1,2*, M.M. Musthafa1,2 & M.A. Al-Shaikh1


1Department of Animal Production, 2Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King
Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

*Email of corresponding author: [email protected]


Introduction

Adaptation of indigenous goat populations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) for low feed
intake, harsh environmental conditions and limited water resources was reported by El-Nouty
et al. (1990). The common native goat breeds in the Kingdom are Ardi, Bishi, Jabaly and
Tohami. Ardi goat is black coloured with white leaf ears and horns present in both sexes (Fig.
1). Genetic characterisation is very useful and widely used to categorise animals in the world
and important for conservation of genetic resources (Kevorkian et al., 2010). Thus,
characterisation could enhance many attributes of breed traits such as resistance to diseases
and fertility. Microsatellites are the markers of choice for genetic characterisation of livestock
due to their various advantages (Baumung et al., 2004). The objective of the present study
was to evaluate the genetic variability of Ardi goats in SA based on microsatellites.



Figure 1. Male (a) and female (b) goats of Ardi breed.


Materials and methods

Unrelated and randomly selected 43 Ardi goats were blood sampled (10 mL from the jugular
vein) and the DNA was extracted using GFX Genomic Blood Kit and checked for quality and
quantity using a spectrophotometer. Fourteen fluorescent labelled microsatellite markers,
recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) were used to extract and
amplify the DNA by PCR using an AB GeneAmp® PCR 9700. Amplified products were
separated by ABI Genetic Analyser 3130. Microsatellite fragment sizing was performed by
the GeneMapper® v.4.0. Statistical analysis was carried out using Cervus v.3.0.3 from Field
Genetics Limited to assess the expected heterozygosity (He), observed heterozygosity (Ho)
and polymorphic information content (PIC). Fixation Index (Fis) and Hardy Weinberg
Equilibrium (HWE) were calculated by GenePop v.4.0.10., and Bottleneck was analysed
using v.1.2.02. Popgene v.1.31.


a b

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109



Results and Discussion

All 14 microsatellites tested amplified well and were found to be polymorphic, containing a
minimum of three alleles and a maximum of nine alleles. The highest observed
heterozygosity was shown by locus SPS113 (0.88), while the lowest was (0.26) by MAF209.
Maximum He was given by MAF70 (0.83) and the minimum was (0.35) by ILSTS005. Ten
markers (Table 1) showed higher heterozygote alleles than the homozygote. All of the
markers showed alleles which were within the expected sizes. HWE test indicated that seven
loci: ILSTS011, ILSTS005, SPS113, ILSTS029, SRCRSP3, MAF70 and OarAE54, were in
HWE. All markers, except ILSTS005, showed acceptable informative capacity with PIC
values higher than 0.5. Mean Fis value was 0.18. Ardi showed higher expected genetic
diversity (0.69) when compared with some Asian goat breeds of southern Sri Lanka (0.48),
Jamunapari (0.54) (Gour et al., 2006), and Korean goats (0.38) (Kim et al., 2002). On the
other hand Ardi showed less genetic diversity when compared with some of the Indian
breeds: Kutchi (0.80), and Mehsana (0.77) (Behl et al., 2003). The mean number of alleles and
He detected were very good indices of the genetic polymorphism within breeds. The PIC
values show the suitability of the markers for analysing the genetic variability. Kumar et al.
(2009) reported the PIC mean of 0.65 for Gohilwaris. The high PIC values of the particular
markers suggest their usefulness for genetic polymorphism related research and linkage
mapping projects in goats. Mode shift indicator and Sign test, Standardised Differences test
and Wilcoxon rank test showed that there was no bottleneck in Ardi goats. In general, from
all of these indices, Ardi goats have a considerable amount of genetic polymorphism.
Therefore, any unique alleles present in this breed may not have been lost.


Table 1. Genetic variability parameters of Ardi goats
Marker na ne Ho He PIC Fis HWE
ILSTS011 8 2.42 0.58 0.58 0.54 0.008 NS
OarFCB20 9 2.44 0.48 0.59 0.55 0.175 *
SPS113 7 4.08 0.87 0.75 0.70 -0.161 NS
ILSTS029 7 4.40 0.69 0.75 0.71 0.049 **
MAF209 3 1.99 0.25 0.49 0.43 0.490 NS
OarFCB48 8 4.31 0.39 0.76 0.72 0.488 **
SRCRSP3 3 2.37 0.61 0.57 0.50 -0.056 NS
ETH10 7 4.31 0.50 0.76 0.71 -0.056 **
MAF70 8 5.92 0.86 0.83 0.79 -0.044 NS
ILSTS005 5 1.54 0.26 0.35 0.33 0.025 NS
OarAE54 9 3.14 0.65 0.68 0.64 0.035 NS
BM6444 4 3.19 0.57 0.68 0.60 0.163 **
INRA023 8 5.47 0.63 0.81 0.78 0.226 **
TGLA53 7 4.39 0.34 0.77 0.73 0.000 **

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Panyaboriban, S., 213
Paramitasari, S., 185
Park, Y.W., 31
Patel, B.H.M., 134, 187, 199
Petlum, A., 99
Phillips, C.J.C., 43
Poathong, S., 73

Q

Qureshi, M.S., 91, 201

R

Rahmann, G., 142
Rehman, A., 165, 205
Retnani, Y., 101
Rischkowsky, B., 156
Riyanto, J., 147, 193
Rofiq, A.A., 147
Roland-Holst, D., 7
Roslaini, R., 11

S

Sabir, A.J., 165
Saifullizam, A.K., 223
Salleh, M.S., 106
Salleh, S.I, 219
Salleh, S.I., 223
Santhong, C., 73
Seifert, J., 27
Setiawan, B., 162
Setyowati, E., 209
Seyed Momen, S.M., 156
Shamshirgaran, Y., 103, 136
Shanmugavelu, S., 210
Sharma, R.S., 182
Shinkai, T., 24
Sikandar, A., 170
Singh, M., 187, 199
Soebarinoto, 196
Somarny, W.W.M., 217
Sonawane, D.R., 182
Sporkmann, K., 142
Srisuk, S., 73
Sudarman, A., 47

Sulaeman, A., 162
Suleman, M., 88
Sultan, A., 91
Sundari, I., 159
Suranindyah, Y., 159, 185
Surjowardojo, P., 124
Susilawati, I., 75
Susilorini, T.E., 122, 124
Suwimonteerabutr, J., 213
Suyadi, 124
Syaheera, N.I., 127

T

Taheri Ghahfarokhi, A., 103
Tahmoorespur, M., 103, 136, 168
Taib, M.A., 127
Tarmidi, A.R., 75
Techakampu, M., 77, 213
Tedonkeng, E.P., 129
Tendonkeng, F., 129
Thanomsuksinchai, N., 213
Tharasanit, T., 213
Thiruvenkadan, A.K., 174
Thongchumroon, T., 56
Thongruang, S., 96
Tomkins, N.W., 19
Toral, P.G., 19
Traiyakun, S., 99
Triatmojo, S., 185
Tsakalidou, E., 39

U

Ude, G., 142
Ullah, G., 88
Upadhyay, D., 187, 199
Usawang, S., 77
Utamy, R.F., 93

W

Wan Khadijah, W.E., 106
White, P.J., 14
Wiangsanthiah, S., 73
Wichchukit, S., 154
Widyobroto, B.P., 149

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Y

Yáñez-Ruiz, D.R., 19
Yazdanshenas, M.S., 111, 113, 132
Yazdi, H., 118
Yogendran, N., 179
Younus, M., 170, 205
Yu, Z., 82
Yuyuen, S., 56

Z

Zaman, M.A., 170

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