Download Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, 2nd Edition PDF

TitlePrinciples of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, 2nd Edition
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LanguageEnglish
File Size10.8 MB
Total Pages546
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, 2nd Edition
ISBN 9781441995032
Preface
Contents
Part I: Context
	1: The Ecosystem Concept
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview of Ecosystem Ecology
		History of Ecosystem Ecology
		Ecosystem Structure and Functioning
			Ecosystem Processes
			Ecosystem Structure and Constraints
		Controls Over Ecosystem Processes
		Human-Induced Ecosystem Change
			Human Impacts on Ecosystems
			Resilience and Threshold Changes
			Degradation in Ecosystem Services
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	2: Earth’s Climate System
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Earth’s Energy Budget
		The Atmospheric System
			Atmospheric Composition and Chemistry
			Atmospheric Structure
			Atmospheric Circulation
		The Ocean
			Ocean Structure
			Ocean Circulation
		Landform Effects on Climate
		Vegetation Influences on Climate
		Temporal Variability in Climate
			Long-Term Changes
			Anthropogenic Climate Change
			Interannual Climate Variability
			Seasonal and Daily Variation
			Storms and Weather
		Relationship of Climate to Ecosystem Distribution and Structure
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	3: Geology, Soils, and Sediments
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Controls Over Soil Formation
			Parent Material
			Climate
			Topography
			Time
			Potential Biota
			Human Activities
		Controls Over Soil Loss
		Development of Soil Profiles
			Additions to Soils
			Soil Transformations
			Soil Transfers
			Losses from Soils
		Soil Horizons and Soil Classification
		Soil Properties and Ecosystem Functioning
			Soil Physical Properties
			Soil Chemical Properties
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
Part II: Mechanisms
	4: Water and Energy Balance
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Surface Energy Balance
			Radiation Budget
			Partitioning of Absorbed Radiation
		Box 4.1	The Energetics of Water Movement
		Overview of Ecosystem Water Budgets
		Water Inputs to Ecosystems
		Water Movements Within Ecosystems
			Water Movement from the Canopy to the Soil
			Water Storage and Movement in the Soil
			Water Movement from Soil to Roots
			Water Movement Through Plants
				Roots
				Box 4.2	Tracing Water Flow Through Ecosystems
				Stems
				Leaves
		Water Losses from Ecosystems
			Evaporation from Wet Canopies
			Evapotranspiration from Dry Canopies
			Changes in Storage
			Runoff
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	5: Carbon Inputs to Ecosystems
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview of Carbon Inputs to Ecosystems
		Biochemistry of Photosynthesis
		Pelagic Photosynthesis
			Light Limitation
			CO 2 Supply
			Nutrient Limitation
			Pelagic GPP
		Living on the Edge: Streams and Shorelines
		Terrestrial Photosynthesis
			Photosynthetic Structure of Terrestrial Ecosystems
			C 4 Photosynthesis
			Box 5.1 Carbon Isotopes
			Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
			CO 2 Limitation
			Light Limitation
			Nitrogen Limitation and Photosynthetic Capacity
			Water Limitation
			Temperature Effects
			Pollutants
		Terrestrial GPP
			Canopy Processes
			Leaf Area
				Length of the Photosynthetic Season
			Satellite-Based Estimates of GPP
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	6: Plant Carbon Budgets
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Plant Respiration
		What Is NPP?
		Marine NPP
		Lake NPP
		Stream and River NPP
		Terrestrial NPP
			Physiological Controls Over NPP
			Environmental and Species Controls Over NPP
		Allocation
			Allocation of NPP
			Allocation Response to Multiple Resources
			Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles of Allocation
		Tissue Turnover
		Global Distribution of Biomass and NPP
			Biome Differences in Biomass
			Biome Differences in NPP
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	7: Decomposition and Ecosystem Carbon Budgets
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview of Decomposition and Ecosystem Carbon Balance
		Leaching of Litter
		Litter Fragmentation
		Chemical Alteration
			Fungi
			Bacteria and Archaea
			Soil Animals
		Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneity of Decomposition
			Temporal Pattern
			Vertical Distribution
		Box 7.1 Isotopes and Soil Carbon Turnover
		Factors Controlling Decomposition
			Litter Quality
			Rhizosphere Stimulation of Decomposition
			Microbial Community Composition and Enzymatic Capacity
			The Environment
				Moisture
				Temperature
			Soil Organic Matter
				Soil Properties
				Soil Disturbance
				Humus Formation
			Peat Accumulation and Trace Gas Emissions
		Heterotrophic Respiration
		Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)
		Box 7.2 Measuring Carbon Fluxes of Ecosystems and Regions
		Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance
			Gaseous Carbon Fluxes
			Particulate Carbon Fluxes
			Dissolved Carbon Fluxes
		Stream Carbon Fluxes
			Stream Decomposition
			Stream Carbon Budgets
		Lake Carbon Fluxes
		Ocean Carbon Fluxes
		Carbon Exchange at the Global Scale
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	8: Plant Nutrient Use
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview
		Ocean Ecosystems
		Lake Ecosystems
		Rivers and Streams
		Terrestrial Ecosystems
			Nutrient Movement to the Root
			Diffusion
			Mass Flow
			Root Interception
		Nutrient Absorption
			Nutrient Supply
			Development of Root Length
			Mycorrhizae
			Nitrogen Fixation
			Root Absorption Properties
		Nutrient Use
		Nutrient Loss from Plants
			Senescence
			Leaching Loss from Plants
			Herbivory
			Other Avenues of Nutrient Loss from Plants
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	9: Nutrient Cycling
		Introduction
		A Focal Point
		Overview of Nutrient Cycling
		Marine Nutrient Cycling
			Large-Scale Nutrient Cycles
			Estuaries
			Coastal Currents
		Lake Nutrient Cycling
		Stream Nutrient Cycling
		Nitrogen Inputs to Terrestrial Ecosystems
			Biological Nitrogen Fixation
				Groups of Nitrogen Fixers
				Causes of Variation in Nitrogen Fixation
			Nitrogen Deposition
		Internal Cycling of Nitrogen
			Overview of Mineralization
			Production and Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen
			Production and Fate of Ammonium
			Production and Fate of Nitrate
			Temporal and Spatial Variability
		Pathways of Nitrogen Loss
			Gaseous Losses of Nitrogen
				Ecological Controls
				Atmospheric Roles of Nitrogen Gases
			Solution Losses
			Erosional Losses
		Other Element Cycles
			Phosphorus
			Sulfur
			Essential Cations
			Micronutrients and Nonessential Elements
		Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Agricultural Systems
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	10: Trophic Dynamics
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview of Trophic Dynamics
		Controls Over Energy Flow through Ecosystems
			Bottom-Up Controls
			Top-Down Controls
		Trophic Effects on Nutrient Cycling
		Ecological Efficiencies
			Trophic Efficiency and Energy Flow
			Consumption Efficiency
			Assimilation Efficiency
			Production Efficiency
		Food Chain Length
		Seasonal and Interannual Patterns
		Nutrient Transfers
		Detritus-Based Trophic Systems
		Integrated Food Webs
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	11: Species Effects on Ecosystem Processes
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Overview of Species Effects on Ecosystem Processes
		Effect Functional Types
			Species Effects on Biogeochemistry
				Nutrient Supply
				Nutrient Turnover
			Species Effects on Biophysical Processes
			Species Effects on Trophic Interactions
			Species Effects on Disturbance Regime
		Response Functional Types
		Integrating the Effects of Traits on Ecosystems
			Functional Matrix of Multiple Traits
			Linkages Between Response and Effect Traits
			Diversity as Insurance
			Species Interactions and Ecosystem Processes
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
Part III: Patterns
	12: Temporal Dynamics
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Ecosystem Resilience and Change
			Alternative Stable States
			Resilience and Thresholds
				Sources of Resilience
				Limits to Resilience
				Thresholds and Regime Shifts
		Box 12.1	Resilience and Regime Shifts
		Disturbance
			Conceptual Framework
			Impact of a Disturbance Event
			Recovery and Renewal after Disturbance
			Disturbance Regime
		Succession
			Ecosystem Structure and Composition
				Primary Succession
				Secondary Succession
			Water and Energy Exchange
			Carbon Balance
				Primary Succession
				Secondary Succession
			Nutrient Cycling
				Primary Succession
				Secondary Succession
			Trophic Dynamics
		Temporal Scaling of Ecological Processes
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	13: Landscape Heterogeneity and Ecosystem Dynamics
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Concepts of Landscape Heterogeneity
		Causes of Spatial Heterogeneity
			Detection and Analysis of Spatial Heterogeneity
			State Factors and Interactive Controls
			Community Processes and Legacies
			Disturbance
			Interactions Among Sources of Heterogeneity
		Patch Interactions on the Landscape
			Topographic and Land–Water Interactions
			Atmospheric Transfers
			Movement of Plants and Animals on the Landscape
			Disturbance Spread
		Human Land-Use Change and Landscape Heterogeneity
			Extensification
			Intensification
		Extrapolation to Larger Scales
		Box 13.1 Spatial Scaling Through Ecological Modeling
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
Part IV: Integration
	14: Changes in the Earth System
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Human Drivers of Change
		The Global Water Cycle
			Water Pools and Fluxes
			Anthropogenic Changes in the Water Cycle
			Consequences of Changes in the Water Cycle
		The Global Carbon Cycle
			Carbon Pools and Fluxes
			Changes in Atmospheric CO 2
			Marine Sinks for CO 2
			Box 14.1 Partitioning of Carbon Uptake Between the Land and Ocean
			Terrestrial Sinks for CO 2
			CO 2 Effects on Climate
			The Global Methane Budget
		The Global Nitrogen Cycle
			Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes
			Anthropogenic Changes in the Nitrogen Cycle
		The Global Phosphorus Cycle
			Phosphorus Pools and Fluxes
			Anthropogenic Changes in the Phosphorus Cycle
		The Global Sulfur Cycle
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
	15: Managing and Sustaining Ecosystems
		Introduction
		A Focal Issue
		Sustaining Social–Ecological Systems
			Box 15.1 Social-Ecological Interactions and the Flooding of New Orleans
			Sustainability
			Ecological Dimensions of Sustainability
		Box 15.2 Assessing Tradeoffs Among Ecosystem Services: Hydropower Versus Conservation in New Zealand
		Box 15.3 Water Purification for New York City
		Conceptual Framework for Ecosystem Management
			Sustaining Soil Resources
			Sustaining Biodiversity
			Sustaining Variability and Resilience
		Applying Ecosystem Principles to Management
			Forest Management
			Fisheries Management
			Ecosystem Renewal
			Box 15.4 Everglades Restoration Study
			Management for Endangered Species
		Socioeconomic Contexts of Ecosystem Management
			Meeting Human Needs and Wants
			Managing Flows of Ecosystem Services
			Addressing Political Realities
			Innovation and Adaptive Management
			Sustainable Development: Social–Ecological Transformation
		Summary
		Review Questions
		Additional Reading
Abbreviations
Glossary
References
Index
                        

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