Download Principles and Practice of Brachytherapy: Using Afterloading Systems PDF

TitlePrinciples and Practice of Brachytherapy: Using Afterloading Systems
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size49.0 MB
Total Pages464
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Contents
Contributors
Preface
PART I THE PHYSICS OF BRACHYTHERAPY
	1 Sources in brachytherapy
	2 Source specification and dosimetry
	3 Calibration of sources
	4 Systems of dosimetry
	5 Computers in brachytherapy dosimetry
	6 Dose specification and reporting: the ICRU recommendations
	7 Afterloading systems
	8 Quality assurance in low dose-rate afterloading
	9 Quality assurance in high dose-rate afterloading
	10 Radiation protection in brachytherapy
PART II THE RADIOBIOLOGY OF BRACHYTHERAPY
	11 The radiobiology of low dose-rate and fractionated irradiation
	12 Dose-rate effects with human cells
	13 Radiobiology of high dose-rate, low dose-rate, and pulsed dose-rate brachytherapy
	14 Predictive assays for radiation oncology
	15 Principles of the dose-rate effect derived from clinical data
PART III CLINICAL PRACTICE
	16 Endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of lung cancer
	17 Brachytherapy in cancer of the esophagus
	18 High dose-rate afterloading brachytherapy for prostate cancer
	19 Low dose-rate brachytherapy for breast cancer
	20 Brachytherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer
	21 High dose-rate interstitial and endocavitary brachytherapy in cancer of the head and neck
	22 Brachytherapy in the treatment of pancreas and bile duct cancer
	23 Brachytherapy for treating endometrialcancer
	24 Low dose-rate brachytherapy for treating cervix cancer: changing dose rate
	25 High dose-rate brachytherapy for treating cervix cancer
	26 Brachytherapy for brain tumors
	27 Interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix
	28 Interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the anorectum
	29 High dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of skin tumors
	30 Hyperthermia and brachytherapy
	31 The costs of brachytherapy
	32 Quality management: clinical aspects
	33 Safe practice and prevention of accidents in afterloading brachytherapy
	34 Pulsed low dose-rate brachytherapy in clinical practice
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Principles and Practice
of Brachytherapy
using afterloading systems

Edited by

C.A. Joslin
Emeritus Professor of Radiotherapy, Leeds University,

Tunbridge Building, Regional Cancer Treatment

Centre, Cookridge Hospital, Leeds, UK

A. Flynn
Head of Brachytherapy Physics, Department of

Medical Physics and Engineering, Cookridge Hospital,

Leeds, UK

and

E.J. Hall
Professor of Biophysics, Radiology and Radiation

Oncology, Director-Center for Radiological Research,

Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia

University, New York, USA

A member of the Hodder Headline Group

LONDON

Co-published in the United States of America by
Oxford University Press Inc., New York

Page 232

PART

Clinical practice

Ill

16 Endobronchial brachytherapy in the treatment of
lung cancer 225

17 Brachytherapy in cancer of the esophagus 243
18 High dose-rate afterloading brachytherapy for

prostate cancer 257
19 Low dose-rate brachytherapy for breast cancer 266
20 Brachytherapy in the treatment of head and

neck cancer 284
21 High dose-rate interstitial and endocavitary

brachytherapy in cancer of the head and neck 296
22 Brachytherapy in the treatment of pancreas

and bile duct cancer 317
23 Brachytherapy for treating endometrial cancer 333
24 Low dose-rate brachytherapy for treating cervix

cancer: changing dose rate 343
25 High dose-rate brachytherapy for treating cervix

cancer 354
26 Brachytherapy for brain tumors 373
27 Interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of

carcinoma of the cervix 379
28 Interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of

carcinoma of the anorectum 387
29 High dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of

skin tumors 393
30 Hyperthermia and brachytherapy 400
31 The costs of brachytherapy 410
32 Quality management: clinical aspects 423
33 Safe practice and prevention of accidents in

afterloading brachytherapy 433
34 Pulsed low dose-rate brachytherapy in clinical

practice 443

Page 233

This page intentionally left blank

Page 463

454 Index

marginal costs 412
MARS Regulations 148
Martinez Universal Perineal Implant

Template (MUPIT) 383, 404
mean central dose 82, 87-90
Meisberger polynomials 15
microSelectron-HDR 103,109
microSelectron-LDR 107-8,112
microSelectron-PDR 110
milligram-hour concept 12
minimum peripheral dose (MPD) 67, 74, 90
minimum target dose 82, 84, 90
Monte Carlo techniques 11,14-15,16, 17,

31,76
mouth, floor of 289, 290
MRI 75-6
multiple damaged sites 181
multiple dose fractionation 168-70

nasal vestibule
brachytherapy 304
interstitial single-plane implant 303—1
mould techniques 304

nasopharynx 289, 290
endocavitary brachytherapy 307—9

National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST) (US) 20

natural dose ratio (NDR) 74
natural prescription dose (NPD) 74
natural volume dose histogram (NVDH)

43-4,46, 92
Newcastle System 47
'no system' method 43
Nominal Standard Dose (NSD) approach

189
normal tissue complication probability

(NTCP) 190,191-2,298
normal-tissue cellular radiosensitivity 208—9
Norman-Simon capsules 118-19
nose 288, 290, 303-4

operating costs 411
optimization on distance 57
optimization on volume 57
optimization techniques in stepping source

brachytherapy 57-64
distance and volume implants 57
geometric optimization

on American volume implants 62-3
on European distance implants 63
on European volume implants 63

least square minimization 58-61
dwell time gradient 59-60
polynomial optimization 60-1

linear programming 61
polynomial optimization on volume 64
rules of optimization 57-8
simulated annealing 61-2
volume implants 62-4

oropharynx 290
orthogonal reconstruction method 52-3
output budget 413

paediatric head and neck malignancies 291
palladium-103 4, 9,10
pancreatic cancer, brachytherapy in 317-24

chemotherapy 318
intraoperative brachytherapy 319—20

available isotopes 320
indications 319

intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)
319

pretreatment assessment 317-18
radiation therapy 318-19
surgery 318
treatment planning and technique 320—4

Paris Dosimetry System 35-8, 47, 61, 64, 82,
92

basic principles 35-6
dose calculation 37, 37, 38
dose specification 84-5
positioning the sources 36—7
problems 38

Paris System 287
Paterson-Parker System, see Manchester

System
pelvic-wall reference point 97
perspex phantom 27
pillar and soft palate 289
pinna, skin tumors 398
planning target volume (PTV) 83—4
polonium-214 (radium C') 214
polynomial optimization on volume 64
POPUMET Regulations 147
potentially lethal damage 166-8
potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR)

166, 174-5
predictive assays 205-20

cell-cycle analysis and tumor response 211
oxygen measurements and tumor

response 209-11
requirements 206
survival assays 206-9

cell adhesive matrix (CAM) assay
206-7

Courtenay-Mills soft agar assay 207-8
normal-tissue cellular radiosensitivity

208-9
tumor-cell radiosensitivity 206

prescription dose 67
pretreatment checks 437
primary care groups 413
procedural checks 437
prostate cancer 75, 257-64

catheter insertion and fixation 259-60
complications and toxicity 263-4
computed tomography-based 3D

planning 261
costs of brachytherapy 419-20
dose prescription 261-3
fluoroscopic implantation procedure 258
implant reconstruction 260-1
implant techniques 258
Mount Vernon applicator and template

technique 260
procedure 258
transrectal ultrasound implantation

technique 258-9
treatment results 263

provider units 413
PTW-Freiburg re-entrant chamber 22
pulsed dose rate (PDR) 105, 110,199-200

'daytime' 200
equivalent regimens 200-1

pulsed low dose-rate brachytherapy 443-9
advantages and disadvantages 443-5
clinical results 448-9
in vitro and in vivo 447-8
radiobiologic rationale 445—7

purchases units 413

quality assurance 424
high dose-rate remote afterloading

133-15
low dose-rate remote afterloading 112-31

Quality Index (QI) 69, 72
quality management 423

administrative requirements 429-31
communications 431
motivation and training 429-31
resource requirements 421

audit 424-5

clinical aspects 424-9
confirmation of delivery of treatment

428
effectiveness of treatment 427-8

local tumor control 428
normal-tissue effects 428-9
time scale for follow-up 429

patient, the 426
prescription and treatment procedure

427-8
pretreatment 426
pretreatment assessment 426
target volume 427
treatment intent 426
treatment plan 426-7
tumor volume 427
treatment optimization 427

common elements in programs 133
quality assurance 424
quality control 424

Quimby System 12, 35, 41-2, 47, 82
dose specification 84

radial dose function 16
radiation protection 147-56

afterloading 152
quality assurance in 148—9

autoradiography and radiography 149
source identification and description

148
source integrity checks 148-9
source strength measurements 149

source handling 149-52
insertion of sources into patients 150-1
preparation of sources/applicators

149-50
removal of sources from patients 151
source and applicator cleaning 151-2
storage of sealed sources 149
transportation of sources 150
treatment delivery 151

treatment rooms 152-6
radiation protection, cost of 418
radionuclides, production of 4-5
radium 3
radium mass equivalent 12
radium substitutes 3-4
radium-226 11
radon 3
radon-22211,12
Rapid Strand 8, 9
recharging 413
reconstruction of source localization 52-7

localization using film imaging techniques
52-4

isocentric reconstruction method 53-4
orthogonal reconstruction method

52-3
reconstruction methods using

correspondence lines 54
semi-orthogonal reconstruction

method 53
stereo-shift reconstruction method 54
variable angle reconstruction method

54
reconstruction accuracy 55-6

using CT or MRI slices 56
using catheter describing points 56
using catheter image tracking 56

specification of coordinates 52
tracking of catheter images 54-5

rectal dose, reference point for 96-7, 98
rectum

absorbed dose rate 97
high dose-rate brachytherapy in cervical

cancer, effects on 366-7

Page 464

Index 455

re-entrant ionization chambers 21-3
reference air kerma rate 13-14

cylindrical line sources and 15
equivalent activity and 14
radium mass equivalent and 14
spherical sources with isotropic emission

and 14
reference dose 90
reference standards 19-21
reference volume 94
retroactive synchronization 165
revenue costs 411-12
rodent ulcers 393
room, treatment, see treatment room

safe practice 433-42
samarium-145 4,10
scalp, skin tumors 398
scattering in irradiated medium 14—15
sealed radiation source 7
secondary traceability 19
seed sources 15
Selectron-HDR 109
Selectron-LDR112
Selectron-LDR/MDR 107
Selectron Source Dosimetry System 22
semi-fixed costs 411
semi-orthogonal reconstruction method 53
semi-variable costs 411
servicing 438-9
Sievert Integral 11-12,12, 15
sigmoid colon, high dose-rate brachytherapy

in cervical cancer, effects on 366—7
singular value decomposition (SVD) 59
skin, brachytherapy 288
skin tumors, high dose-rate brachytherapy

in 393-9
absorbed dose distribution 394
afterloading systems 394
clinical practice 397-8
dose fractionation schedules 397
mould production 395-7

applicator supports 396
casts 395
disposition of sources 396

dosimetry measurement 397
provisional treatment times 396-7

selection of treatment distance 395
small bowel, high dose-rate brachytherapy

in cervical cancer, effects on 368
soft palate 289, 304-7
source measurements in solid phantoms 24
source strength 51
specific dose-rate constant 51
specific gamma ray constant 11, 13
specification by activity content 12-13
specification emission 13-14
squamous cell carcinoma 393
staff (labour) 439

costs 412
step costs 411
Stepping Source Dosimetry System 64-5
stereo-shift reconstruction method 54, 85
Stockholm System, carcinoma of body of

the uterus and 47
sublethal damage repair (SLDR) 162-3
sunk cost 411
Syed-Neblett applicator 380, 383, 384
Syed-Neblett rectal template 389
systems of work 439

tantalum wire 106
TEM Cathetron 108-9
thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) 25
three-dimensional imaging techniques 75-6
time-dose factor (TDF) 189
tissue attenuation factors 52
tongue 289, 290

interstitial volume implant 302-3
tonsil 289, 306-7
top-slicing 413
total reference air kerma (TRAK) 93, 94, 95
traceability 19-21
training 440-1
treated volume 84
treatment delivery 437-8
treatment planning 435-7

information transfer to staff 436
information transfer to treatment unit

436-7

production of plan 436
treatment prescription 435
treatment rooms 152—6

design 153, 434-5
for gynecological intracavitary treatments

155
high dose-rate remote afterloading 156
intended use 153
location 153
low dose-rate/medium dose-rate remote

afterloading 155
radiation and protection requirements

154
size and layout 153
types 152-3

treatment room scatter correction factors
29-30,30

trust hospitals 413
tumor-cell radiosensitivity 206
tumor control probability (TCP) 189-90,

191-2, 298

ultrasound imaging 75
three-dimensional 77

Uniformity Index (UI) 69, 72
uterus, body of, carcinoma of

Manchester System and 47
Stockholm System 47

vaginal irradiation 47
variable angle reconstruction method 54
variable costs 411
VariSource 103, 109, 140, 141
volume-dose calculations 91
volume specification 82
volumes, definition of 82-4

Walstam-type sources of cesium-137 5-6, 6
water phantom 27
whole breast external-beam irradiation

(WBRT) 266-79

X-ray transition point 165

ytterbium-169 4,10

Similer Documents