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Page 1

Present problems
in the democratization of

secondary and
higher education
A. le Gall
J. A. Lauwerys, B. Holmes, A. B. Dryland
S. Mattsson

Unesco Paris 1973

Page 2

The development of higher education

Page 116

XI. Lifelong education and
the struggle against
differ enti ation

W e have mentioned lifelong education several times as an institution designed
to wage war a posteriori and on a broad scale against differentiation. The
need for it is obvious; but by and large, it remains a generality, a need
claimed or admitted to be obvious a priori. It is important to throw some
light on this point and we shall attempt to set out the functions of lifelong
education starting with the simplest day-to-day aspects and moving on to
more complex and forward-looking considerations.


Remedying educational defects

Men and women who have not been able to receive schooling corresponding
to their true ability should be given the means of making good the deficiencies
in the education they received as boys and girls.
These deficiencies may exist for a variety of reasons, whether personal

(lack of application, inattention, etc.), social (obstacles to attendance at
school, lack of resources, distance) or socio-psychological (lack of interest
and of motivation for sociological reasons which have been mentioned many
times in this study). A precise and detailed analysis of these reasons, which
would obviously be of great interest, cannot be undertaken here. W e shall
confine ourselves to stating the basic problem posed by this function of
remedying deficiencies, which we shall encounter at every step here: is the
aim simply to fill the gaps in what should have been learnt at school (for
example, to remedy ignorance of arithmetic, algebra, the mother tongue
or a foreign language) or is the aim, at the same time, to train the mind? It
would seem that lifelong education could not fulfil its primary function if,
while giving further instruction, it did not try to provide training at the
same time, or in other words, as its name implies, a real education. To
educate is to offer or to open up an intellectual structure. Here and here
alone is the real benefit. To lay ready-made knowledge over a structural
void means either that this knowledge will be rapidly forgotten, or else be
treated as an artificial acquisition, even if it may seem technically useful.
The differentiation to be fought lies in lack of organization in the mind


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Differentiation and democratization in secondary and higher education

rather than in lack of knowledge. A genuine increase in knowledge comes
by way of a progressive organization of the understanding. The two are
linked together and here again, perhaps more than ever, the principle is to
inform in order to form. Any arrangement of which the results approximated
self-education would be damaging. O n the other hand, any arrangement
which started by putting the empirical and approximate knowledge previously
acquired in its logical place and then suggested other knowledge following
the same procedure of logical organization, would deserve the name of life-
long education. True adult education must be lifelong, not only in what it
has to offer but in its results. It must therefore aim at stimulating the
understanding more than at stimulating the memory, must lay stress on
judgement even more than knowledge and concentrate on ability to learn
well even more than on what is learnt. Such ambitions are not excessive
even at the elementary level when a semi-skilled worker is about to be
promoted to the ranks of the skilled. Organizing the understanding has
stages too. It can go hand in hand with education and accompany it step
by step. It must simply be kept constantly in view.
Quite simply, the way to achieve this organization is through the constant

demonstration of the processes of analysis and synthesis. At the adult stage
perhaps even more than at an earlier age, the nature and function of the
workings of the understanding should be quite clear. Just as a child has
not understood subtraction and multiplication until he has grasped their
connexion with addition, so an adult has not understood a practical problem
until he is able to apply the techniques of analysis and synthesis which
he has just been using to a different problem. This is how additional know-
ledge becomes additional training and how the differentiations of early years
are put right. Obviously, the extramural forms of higher education, studied
in Chapter X, should be considered separately.

Further training

There is no need to repeat how necessary and how wide-ranging further
training is at the present time. What is stated in the section above on
remedying defects suggests that esorts would be incomplete if further training
simply meant getting up to date or learning new things. The term ‘further
training’ does not mean putting new knowledge or techniques side by side
with the old ones, but going over the whole field of acquired knowledge once
again and giving it a new cast, a new unity and a new span.
Whether further training is academic or technical, there emerges the

following alternative: either the new knowledge or technique is simply a
complement and must then be linked with existing knowledge and techniques
or else it represents an essentially new contribution which must then lead
to a general redistribution of knowledge. It will not provide academic or
technical knowledge with an authentically new structure unless it embraces


Page 231

State study assistance in Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries

Post-secondary education is financed by loans and grants for extra expenses
for those who live away from home.
The condition for receipt of a grant is that the education is not subsidized

by other means, e.g. by free board and lodging. A grant for a student who
lives away from home is not means-tested and is available to all groups except
apprentices (this question is being investigated). In the academic year 1970/71
the grant was 2,000 Norwegian kroner.’ Pupils living away from home are nor-
mally taken to be boarded pupils whose parents’ home is more than forty
kilometres from the school and pupils whose daily return journey between
home and school exceeds three hours.
All education which does not require preceding gymnasia1 or corresponding

education qualifies for a means-tested grant based on the parents’ income
and capital. The means test relates to all students supported by their parents
irrespective of age or civil status. Only if particular circumstances can be
documented can this rule be waived. During the academic year 1970/71 the
grants ran from 400 to 1,400 kroner. A grant for an applicant who is an
only child may be made within the income group of 17,000 to 19,000 kroner.
The upper income limit for allocation of a means-tested grant is then raised
by 3,000 kroner for every additional child in the family.
The smaller, supplementary loan, which may be applied for by the group

in the most elementary form of further education, is bound by the same means
test as above. For the academic year 1970/71 it was proposed that the
amount be between 1,000 and 5,000 kroner.
A full educational loan is intended to cover all expenditure incurred during

a year of study and not covered by a grant or by an expected contribution
from the parents. Educational expenditure is understood to mean living
expenses, educational materials and two journeys home during the academic
The monthly amounts for living expenses during the academic year 1970/71

are assumed to be at least 820-900 kroner for pupils living away from home
and 620-700 kroner for those living at home (the higher amount being for
pupils in the three largest cities).
A day-course of less than one year (seven months) but more than 34 months

entitles the student to a grant only unless the course is for complementary
The educational loan is means-tested against the parents’ income and capital.

The applicants’ finances, and that of the spouse, if any, are also taken into
account. In single-child families no contribution to the pupil is assumed at an
income level below 35,000 kroner. The free limit is then raised by 3,000 kroner
for every additional child in the family. The lowest parents’ contribution is
500 kroner. The contribution then increases by 300 kroner for every additional
3,000 kroner of income. The same applies to larger families.
1. At the present rate of exchange 100 Norwegian kroner are equivalent to 72.55


1 Swedish kronor

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Present problems in the democratization of secondary and higher education

The contribution from the parents is halved if the parent is above 65 years of
age, if the applicant is above 25 years of age, if the applicant is himself liable
for maintenance and is above 21 years of age, or if the applicant has completed
at least three years of education. If there are other brothers or sisters under-
going education for which they are entitled to assistance, the contribution
is divided among the brothers and sisters who are studying.
Parents’ capital below 80,000 kroner does not affect the study assistance.

Of the excess capital, 15 per cent is normally added to the income, though
the amount may vary according to the nature of the capital.
An applicant’s net income during the academic year of above 3,000 kroner

reduces the study assistance. Liquid capital assets above 3,000 kroner are also
deducted, but the capital is valued separately.
Of a spouse’s income of above 15,000 kroner 30 per cent is deducted from

the amount of assistance. This limit is raised by 7,000 kroner if there are two
households and by an additional 5,000 kroner for the first child and 3,000
kroner for other children. A spouse’s capital below 20,000 kroner is usually
A married applicant with maintenance liability (children) may receive an

additional assistance of 2,500 kroner per annum for the first child and 1,500
kroner for each additional child.
All Norwegian subjects who acquire education outside Norway are given

full study assistance when there is a need for manpower in the vocational
field in question and when the Norwegian schools cannot accept all applicants.
For academic education outside Norway, a travel allowance is given to cover

50 per cent of the fare for two return journeys, expenses of up to 3,000 kroner
and the aforementioned ‘living away from home grant’ of 2,000 kroner. For
non-academic education no allowance is made for expenses, nor for academic
further education or special education.
The State loans granted to Norwegian students are free of interest during

the period of study. Interest is then paid from the end of education or from
the time of interrupting the education at the rate of, at present, 42 per cent
per annum. The amortization period has been made dependent on the amount
of the loan and the assumed income level during the repayment period. The
commonest repayment period is ten to fifteen years, but for large loans it
may be twenty years.
The assistance rules apply primarily to Norwegian subjects. Exceptionally,

the citizens of other countries may be placed on an equal footing with Nor-
wegian subjects when they have strong and presumably permanent ties with
Norway. This may apply, for instance, to political refugees, aliens on Norwe-
gian vessels, or persons linked with Norway by marriage.


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