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TitlePractitioner's Guide to Incorporating Greenhouse Gas Emissions into the Collaborative Decision ...
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Project Description
Guide Web Page
============
Practitioners Guide to Incorporating Greenhouse Gas Emissions into the Collaborative Decision-Making Process
SUBSCRIBER CATEGORIES
THE SECOND STRATEGIC HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM
About the Academies
SHRP 2 STAFF
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
FOREWORD
CONTENTS
1  INCORPORATING GHG EMISSIONS INTO COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING: A PRACTITIONERS GUIDE
	INTRODUCTION
	ORGANIZATION
2  TRANSPORTATION FOR COMMUNITIES: ADVANCING PROJECTS THROUGH PARTNERSHIPS DECISION-MAKING FRAMEWORK
	INTRODUCTION
	COLLABORATIVE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
	LONG-RANGE TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
	PROGRAMMING
	CORRIDOR PLANNING
	ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW, NEPA, AND PERMITTING MERGED WITH PLANNING
3  ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR CONSIDERING GHG EMISSIONS IN DECISION MAKING
	DETERMINE INFORMATION NEEDS
	DEFINE GOALS AND MEASURES
	DEFINE RANGE OF STRATEGIES FOR CONSIDERATION
	EVALUATE GHG BENEFITS AND IMPACTS OF PROJECTS AND STRATEGIES
	SELECT STRATEGIES AND DOCUMENT OVERALL GHG BENEFITS AND IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVES
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
	GENERAL REFERENCES
	POLICY RESOURCES
	TRANSPORTATION AND EMISSIONS DATA SOURCES
	STRATEGY IMPACTS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS
	STATE AND METROPOLITAN STUDIES
	GHG ANALYSIS TOOLS
A   RESOURCE MATERIAL
	INTRODUCTION
	FEDERAL AND STATE REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDANCE FOR GHG CONSIDERATION IN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
	SURFACE TRANSPORTATION CONTRIBUTION TO GHG EMISSIONS
	CONTEXTUAL FACTORS INFLUENCING TRANSPORTATION GHG EMISSIONS
	EFFECTIVENESS AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF TRANSPORTATION GHG EMISSIONS REDUCTION STRATEGIES
	GHG ANALYSIS TOOLS
	OFF-MODEL METHODS
	GHG EMISSIONS FROM TRANSIT VEHICLES
	GHG EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SOURCES
	VEHICLE AND FUEL LIFE-CYCLE EMISSIONS
	INDIRECT EFFECTS AND INDUCED DEMAND
	USING MOVES TO ESTIMATE GHG EMISSIONS
REFERENCES
RELATED RESEARCH
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Practitioners Guide to
Incorporating Greenhouse
Gas Emmissions
into the Collaborative
Decision-Making Process

S2-C09-RW-2

Page 2

TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*

OFFICERS
Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Director, Innovation in Infrastructure, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C.
Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia
Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board

MEMBERS
Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center, and Visiting Professor, Georgetown University Law Center,
Washington, D.C.

J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky
William A. V. Clark, Professor of Geography (emeritus) and Professor of Statistics (emeritus), Department of Geography, University of
California, Los Angeles

Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh
James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas
Paula J. C. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia
Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort
Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Adib K. Kanafani, Professor of the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chair, 2009)
Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, Louisiana
Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence
Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation, Carson City
Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany
Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington (Past Chair, 2010)
Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, Louisiana
Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri
Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Rail and Transit Division, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, and
Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston

David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul
Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and
Acting Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis

Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing
Douglas W. Stotlar, President and Chief Executive Officer, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan
C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin (Past Chair, 1991)

EX OFFICIO MEMBERS
Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, Georgia
Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior
John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C.
John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C.
Michael P. Huerta, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C.
Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
Tara O’Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation
Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Washington, D.C.

Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California
Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation

* Membership as of December 2012.

Page 111

99

PRACTITIONERS GUIDE TO INCORPORATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INTO THE COLLABORATIVE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

Perhaps of greatest interest in freight-related GHG emissions is that emissions
from heavy-duty trucks have increased rapidly since 1990, growing at three times the
rate of LDV emissions. This increase is the product of decreasing fuel efficiency (per
ton-mile carried) and increasing demand for freight movement by trucks. From 1990
to 2007, CO

2
emissions per ton-mile carried increased almost 12%, and ton-miles car-

ried increased 55%. The changes were driven by an expansion of freight trucking after
economic deregulation of the trucking industry in the 1980s; widespread adoption of
just-in-time manufacturing and retailing practices by business shippers and receivers;
increasing highway congestion; and structural changes in the economy that produced
higher-value, lower-weight, and more time-sensitive shipments that were best served
by trucking. In October 2010 the federal government proposed heavy-duty fuel effi-
ciency standards for the first time, which may begin to reverse this trend if imple-
mented (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration 2010b).

CONTEXTUAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
TRANSPORTATION GHG EMISSIONS

Overview of Contextual Factors
The AEO reference case presented above is just one potential scenario for transporta-
tion GHG emissions. GHG emissions may be affected by a wide range of factors, some
under varying degrees of influence by transportation agencies (e.g., speed, congestion,
construction and maintenance practices, infrastructure investment, and pricing), and
some over which they have little or no influence (e.g., population growth and vehicle
and fuel technologies). As shown in Figure A.7, GHG emissions from passenger and
freight travel are affected by five primary factors: total travel activity, the fuel efficiency
of vehicles, the operational efficiency of drivers and the system (e.g., congestion, speed
and aggressive driving), the carbon content of fuels, and energy use associated with
construction and maintenance.

Figure A.7. Different components of transportation-related GHG emissions.

Page 112

100

PRACTITIONERS GUIDE TO INCORPORATING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INTO THE COLLABORATIVE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

TABLE A.2. CONTEXT FACTORS THAT COULD INFLUENCE GHG EMISSIONS AND
SURFACE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY USE
Factor Category Factor Influence

Transportation costs
and pricing

• Congestion pricing
• Parking pricing
• User fees (e.g., gas taxes, VMT fees, and excise taxes)
• Cost of fuel
• Vehicle insurance and registration fees

A, E, S, F

Population and
economic activity

• Overall population growth, nationally and by region
• Aging population
• Increasing immigration
• Continuing internal (to the U.S.) migration
• Changing levels of affluence
• Economic growth or stagnation
• Service versus industrial economy
• Magnitude and patterns of consumption
• Tourism and recreational activity patterns
• Patterns and variations in values, priorities, and political beliefs of the

population
• International trade and travel
• Fiscal conditions for state DOTs, transit operators, and local transportation

agencies

A, E, S

Table A.2 presents an overview of key contextual factors that could influence
GHG emissions and surface transportation energy use. The table also identifies which
of the components of transportation GHG emissions (identified above) each factor
will likely affect. Additional discussion is provided in the following sections on several
important factors that are most directly relevant to GHG planning and analysis. These
factors include

• Transportation costs and pricing (fuel cost, public-sector user fees, parking pricing,
vehicle insurance pricing, congestion pricing, and vehicle registration fees);

• Population and economic activity;

• Passenger and truck VMT;

• Vehicle technology and fuel efficiency;

• Carbon intensity of transportation fuels;

• Operational efficiency by drivers and system managers;

• Construction, maintenance, and agency operations; and

• Future scenarios for energy use, supply, and costs, including potential economy-
wide federal policy initiatives directed at GHG emissions reductions (e.g., cap-and-
trade carbon tax).

(continued on next page)

Page 222

RELATED RESEARCH

A Framework for Collaborative Decision Making on Additions to Highway Capacity
(C01)
Partnership to Develop an Integrated, Advanced Travel Demand Model and a Fine-
Grained, Time-Sensitive Network (C10A)
Partnership to Develop an Integrated Advanced Travel Demand Model with Mode
Choice Capability and Fine-Grained, Time-Sensitive Networks (C10B)

Page 223

TRB OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE FOR THE
STRATEGIC HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM 2*

Chair: Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation

MEMBERS
H. Norman Abramson, Executive Vice President (retired), Southwest Research Institute
Alan C. Clark, MPO Director, Houston–Galveston Area Council
Frank L. Danchetz, Vice President, ARCADIS-US, Inc.
Stanley Gee, Executive Deputy Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation
Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation
Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada Department of Transportation
John R. Njord, Executive Director, Utah Department of Transportation
Charles F. Potts, Chief Executive Officer, Heritage Construction and Materials
Ananth K. Prasad, Secretary, Florida Department of Transportation
Gerald M. Ross, Chief Engineer, Georgia Department of Transportation
George E. Schoener, Executive Director, I-95 Corridor Coalition
Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University
Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation

EX OFFICIO MEMBERS
John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration
David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration

LIAISONS
Ken Jacoby, Communications and Outreach Team Director, Office of Corporate Research, Technology, and Innovation Management,
Federal Highway Administration

Tony Kane, Director, Engineering and Technical Services, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Jeffrey F. Paniati, Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration
John Pearson, Program Director, Council of Deputy Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety, Canada
Michael F. Trentacoste, Associate Administrator, Research, Development, and Technology, Federal Highway Administration

* Membership as of June 2012.

CAPACITY TECHNICAL COORDINATING COMMITTEE*

Chair: Mark Van Port Fleet, Director, Bureau of Highway Development, Michigan Department of Transportation

MEMBERS
Kome Ajise, Program Manager, Public-Private Partnership Program, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
Michael Bruff, Manager, Transportation Planning Branch, North Carolina Department of Transportation
Jacquelyn D. Grimshaw, Vice President for Policy, Center for Neighborhood Technology
Kris Hoellen, Director, Conservation Leadership Network, The Conservation Fund
Carolyn H. Ismart, Florida Department of Transportation (retired)
Randy Iwasaki, Executive Director, Contra Costa Transportation Authority
Thomas J. Kane, Thomas J. Kane Consulting
Keith L. Killough, Assistant Director, Travel Demand Modeling and Analysis, Multimodal Planning Division, Arizona Department of
Transportation

T. Keith Lawton, Principal, Keith Lawton Consulting, Inc.
Edward A. Mierzejewski, Director of Transportation Research, Gannett Fleming, Inc.
Bob Romig, State Transportation Development Administrator, Florida Department of Transportation
Joseph L. Schofer, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering and Associate Dean, McCormick School of
Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University

Barry Seymour, Executive Director, Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission
Brian Smith, Washington State Department of Transportation
John V. Thomas, Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation, Environmental Protection Agency
Gary Toth, Director, Project for Public Spaces
Jeff Welch, Director, Knoxville Regional Transportation Planning Organization
Doug Woodall, State Director, Turnpike Planning and Development, Texas Turnpike Authority Division, Texas Department of Transportation

AASHTO LIAISON
Janet P. Oakley, Director, Policy and Government Relations, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

FHWA LIAISONS
Patricia Cazenas, SHRP 2 Implementation Director, Research and Financial Services, Federal Highway Administration
Spencer Stevens, Community Planner, Office of Planning Oversight and Stewardship, Federal Highway Administration

*Membership as of October 2012

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