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TitlePlant Biology
TagsBiology
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.3 MB
Total Pages345
Table of Contents
                            BOOK COVER
TITLE
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Section A – Introduction
Section B – Structure
Section C – Vegetative anatomy
Section D – Reproductive anatomy
Section E – Physiology and regulation
Section F – Growth and development
Section G – Sensing and responding to the environment
Section H – Floral development and reproductive physiology
Section I – Plants, water and mineral nutrients
Section J – Metabolism
Section K – Plant communities and populations
Section L – Reproductive ecology
Section M – Interactions between plants and other organisms
Section N – Human uses of plants
Section O – Plant genetic engineering and biotechnology
Section P – Plant diversity
Section Q – Spore-bearing vascular plants
Section R – Seed plants
FURTHER READING
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
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Plant Biology

Page 172

Table 1. Plant secondary products

Family of compounds Biosynthesis Examples Examples of key producers

Terpenoids, isoprenoids; Mevalonic acid pathway Carotenoid pigments;
based on isoprene: (originating from acetyl Sterols and steroid

CH3 CoA) derivatives (e.g. cardiac
glycosides like digitoxin); Digitalis purpurea (foxglove)

CH2=C-CH=CH2 Hormones (abscisic acid,
gibberellins);
Latex Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree)
Flavors (e.g. menthol); Mentha palustris (mint)
Odors

Phenolics based on Shikimic acid pathway Many defence and
phenol: (originating from anti-herbivory

aromatic amino acids compounds including:
tryptophan, tyrosine, phenolic monomers;
phenylalanine) tannins (also flavor wine

and tea); lignins (also
wood); flavonoids
(pigments like
anthocyanins)

Alkaloids (diverse Diverse origins. Name Stimulants
group, containing a derived from slight Caffeine Coffea arabica (coffee)
N-group and water alkalinity in solution. Nicotine Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
soluble) May be aromatic Sedatives

(heterocyclic) Morphine Papaver somniferum (opium
or aliphatic Codeine poppy)

Poisons
Atropine Atropa belladonna (deadly

nightshade)
Chemo-therapy agents

Vinblastine Catharanthus roseus (rosy
Vincristine periwinkle)

Narcotics
Cocaine Erythroxylum coca (coca)

OH



J5 – Amino acid, lipid, polysaccharide and secondary product metabolism 159

Page 344

Sclereids, 25
Sclerenchyma, 25, 33, 234
Scr, 88
Scutellum, 50
Secondary compounds (products),

158–9, 210–12, 238, 251
Secondary coupled transporter,

125, 127
Secondary thickening, 24, 34–6,

297
Secretion, 13
Sedge, 202
Seed, 49–51, 111–3, 191, 305, 312

bank, 191–2
coat, 188
dispersal, 188–190, 190
dormancy, 74, 112
germination, 72, 78, 86, 112,177
set, 184

Seedling, 113, 194–5
Seismonasty, 91, 93
Selaginella, 278–80, 289
Selection breeding, 246
Self-compatibility, 104
Self-fertilization, 103–4, 107, 175,

183, 186, 198–200, 315
Self-incompatibility, 47, 103–105,

107–110, 185, 316
Self-thinning, 178
Semelparous plant, 175–6
Senescence, 70, 73
Sensitive plant, 93
Sepal, 42, 52, 308–9
Sequoia, 298
She-oak, 204
Shikonin, 249, 251
Short-day plant, 84
Sieve plate, seive tube, 26
Silene dioica (campion), 104
Silica, 212, 281
Sink tissue, 151
Sisal, 234
Slime mold, 1
Sloth, 190, 212
Smut fungi, 214
Soft rot, 217
Soil-root interface, 129
Somatic mutation, 230
Sorghum, 221, 229
Sorus, 287–8
Source tissue, 151
Southern blotting, 198
Soy(a) bean, 207, 229
Speciation, in flowering plants,

316
Species, definition in flowering

plants, 315
Sperm, 46, 48, 269, 277, 280, 302–3
Spermatophyta, 258
Spermidine, spermine, 75
Sphagnum, 163, 266, 267–8, 272
Spice, 230
Spinach, 72
Spirogyra, 263
Splachnaceae, 272

Sporangium, see eusporangium,
leptosporangium

Spore, 257, 271–2, 282–5
Sporophyte, definition, 257

of bryophytes, 270–1,
Sporopollenin, 46
Spruce, 233
St. Johnswort, european, 212
Stamen, 42, 43, 46, 103, 105, 108–9,

302, 309
Starch, starch sheath, 88, 149, 157
Statocyte, statolith, 88, 90
Stele, 28
Steppe, 162
Stigma, 42, 44, 105, 108, 109
Stinging hairs, 212
Stolon, 171
Stomata, 39, 78, 122–3
Stonewort, 263
Strangler, 172–3
Striga hermonthica, strigol 220–1
Strobilus, 280, 282–3, see also cone
Stroma, 10
Style, 42, 44, 48, 54, 107, 109
Suaeda maritima, 99
Suberin, 28, 122
Subspecies, 196, 315
Succession, 168, 170, 268
Succinate dehydrogenase, 151
Succinyl CoA synthase, 151
Succulence, 39, 122
Sucker, 241
Sucrose, 44, 153, 157–8
Sugar, 44, 53, 157
Sugar beet, 99
Sugar cane, 221, 230
Sulfur, 133
Sulfur dioxide, 98–9
Sundew, 224
Sunflower, 221, 228
Suspension culture, 248–9
Suspensor, 50, 65
Swede, 229
Sweet gale, 206–7
Symplast, 5
Symplastic transport, 129
Symport, 127
Synaptonemal complex, 21
Synergid cell, 47, 292
Systemic acquired resistance, 215

Tannin, 210–1, 232, 239
TATA box, 16
Taxaceae, 299
Taxodium, 298
Taxol, 237
Taxus brevifolia, 237
T-DNA, 60, 253
Tea, 239
Teliospore, 214
Temperature, in plant distribution,

162
Tendrils, 39
Teosinte, 245
Termite, 233

Terpene, 211, 237, 298
Terpenoids, 159
Testa, 49
Thermonasty, 91
Thigmonasty, 91
Thigmotropism, 87
Thlaspi caerulescens, 243
Thuja, 298
Thylakoid, 10, 139
Thyme family, 104, 230, 309
TI plasmid, 73, 253
Tilia cordata, 233
Tissue, 24–6, 31, 34, 72
Tissue culture, 66, 246–51
Tmesipteris, 286
Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, 159,

221, 239
Tolerance, 98
Tomato, 53, 211, 221, 230
Tonoplast, 3, 14, 125–6
Topiary, 241
Totipotency, 66
Toxic gases, 98
Toxic ions, 97–8, 134
Tracheid, 25, 285, 297
Tracheophytes, definition, 257
Transamination, 156
Transcellular transport, 119
Transcription, transcription factor,

59, 78
Transfer cell, 130
Translation, 59
Transmembrane transport, 130
Transpiration, 117
Transport mechanisms, 13–4
Transposable element, 60
Transposon tagging, 60
Triacylglycerol, 156
Trichome, 38
Trifolium repens, 207
Trimerophytopsida, 258, 275–6,

290, 292
Triple response, 71
Triploid, 17
Triticum, see wheat
Tropism, 87
Tubulin, 3
Tundra, 163, 166
Tunica, 32, 102
Turgor, 65, 116

movements, 86, 92
Turmeric, 230
Turnip, 229
Turpentine, 239

Ulmus glabra, 179
Ulmus procera, 179
Ultraviolet (UV), 43
Umbellifer (Apiaceae, carrot

family), 104, 211, 230
Unisexual Flower, 42, 103, 106
Uredospore, 214
Uridine Diphosphoglucose (UDP

Glucose), 7

Index 331

Page 345

Urticaceae, 212
Utricularia, 224–5

Vacuole, 2–3, see also Tonoplast
Vanilla, 230
Variation, geographical, 196
Variety, 315
Varnish, 239
Vascular bundle, vascular

cylinder, 27, 31–2
Vascular rays, 36
Vavilov Centers, 228–9
Vector, disease, 218

in plant genetic engineering,
253–4

Vegetative form, evolution of, 311
Vein, 37
Venus Fly-Trap, 224–5
Vernalization, 72, 102, 190
Vesicle, 12, 13
Vessel element, 25
Vicia faba, 92
Vinblastine, Vincristine, 237
Vir (Virulence) Region, 253
Virus, 218, 256

Viscaceae, see Mistletoe
Viscose, 233
Vision, insect, 43
Volcanoes, in plant distribution,

164
Volvox, 263

Wasps, as pollinators, 308, 310
Water, as seed disperser, 188

channels, 6, 125
conservation, 144
potential, properties, 115–6
transport, 115–20

Water hyacinth, see Eichhornia
crassipes

Waterlily, 308–9, 312
Waterlogged environments, 162
Waterlogging, 99
Waterwheel plant, 224–5
Weevil, 303
Welwitschia, 258, 304
Wheat, 50, 99, 182, 228

Rust, 213
Willow, 106, 172, 188, 204
Wilt, bacterial, 217

Winteraceae, 312
Witchweed, see Striga, 220–221
Woad, 239
Wood, 7, 34–36, 232–4
Woodland, 172, 205
Wrack, 259, 262, 262–3

Xanthophyll, see Pigment-Accessory
Xerophyte, 122–123
Xylem, 25–28, 33, 35, 232, 297, 304

parenchyma, 33, 130
water flow, 117

Yam, 228–9
Yeast, 230
Yew, 52, 237, 297, 299–300
Yucca, 311

Zea mays, see maize
Zea perennis, 231
Zeatin, 73–4
Zostera, 47
Zosterophyllopsida, 258, 275
Zosterophyllum, 273, 275
Zygomorphic flower, 309

332 Index

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