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TitlePhytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide to Herbal Medicinal Products
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.0 MB
Total Pages682
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Copyright
Table of Contents
Preface
Introduction
	Definitions, the market and the legal position
	References
The Evidence Base for Herbal Medicines
	References
How to use
Açaí: Euterpe oleracea Mart
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Aloe Vera (Gel): Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., A. arborescens Mill. and other Aloe spp
	Synonym
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Arnica: Arnica montana L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Artichoke: Cynara cardunculus L
	Synonym
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ashwagandha: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Asparagus: Asparagus officinalis L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Astragalus: Astragalus mongholicus Bunge
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Baobab: Adansonia digitata L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Bearberry: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Bilberry; Blueberry: Vaccinium myrtillus L.; V. angustifolium Aiton, V. corymbosum L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Birch, Silver and Downy: Betula pendula Roth; B. pubescens Ehrh. and hybrids
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Bitter Gourd: Momordica charantia L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Black Cohosh: Actaea racemosa L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Bladderwrack; Kelp: Fucus vesiculosus L., F. serratus L., Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jolis
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Boldo: Peumus boldo Molina
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Brahmi: Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Burdock: Arctium lappa L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Butcher's Broom: Ruscus aculeatus L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Butterbur: Petasites hybridus (L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Schreb
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Calendula: Calendula officinalis L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Cannabis: Cannabis sativa L
	Synonym
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug Name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Centaury: Centaurium erythraea Rafn
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Centella: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Chamomile, German: Matricaria chamomilla L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Chamomile, Roman: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Chasteberry: Vitex agnus-castus L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Chilli/Capsicum: Capsicum annuum L., C. frutescens L., C. pubescens Ruiz & Pav. and other Capsicum spp
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Cinnamon; Chinese Cinnamon/Cassia: Cinnamomum verum J. Presl; C. cassia (L.) J. Presl
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Cola: Cola nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl., C. acuminata (P.Beauv.) Schott & Endl
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Comfrey: Symphytum officinale L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Cramp Bark: Viburnum opulus L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Cranberry: Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton, V. oxycoccos L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Damiana: Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Dandelion: Taraxacum officinale aggr. F.H.Wigg., T. mongolicum Hand.-Mazz
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Devil's Claw: Harpagophytum procumbens (Burch.) DC. ex Meissner, H. zeyheri Decne
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Echinacea: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench., E. angustifolia DC., E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drugs used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Elderberry, Elderflower: Sambucus nigra L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Eucalyptus: Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. polybractea F.Muell. ex R.T.Baker, E. smithii F.Muell. ex R.T.Baker, and other Eucalyptus spp
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Evening Primrose (Oil): Oenothera biennis L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Fennel: Foeniculum vulgare Mill
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Feverfew: Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ganoderma: Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.; or G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Garlic: Allium sativum L
	Family
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Gentian: Gentiana lutea L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ginger: Zingiber officinale Roscoe
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ginkgo: Ginkgo biloba L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ginseng: Panax ginseng C.A.Mey., P. quinquefolius L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ginseng, Siberian: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Goldenrod: Solidago virgaurea L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Goldenseal: Hydrastis canadensis L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Grapeseed: Vitis vinifera L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Graviola: Annona muricata L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Green Tea: Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Hawthorn: Crataegus spp. (mainly C. laevigata (Poir.) DC., C. monogyna Jacq., C. rhipidophylla Gand., and their hybrids)
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Holy Basil: Ocimum tenuiflorum L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions with other drugs
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Hoodia: Hoodia gordonii (Masson) Sweet ex Decne, and other Hoodia spp
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Hops: Humulus lupulus L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Horny Goat Weed: Epimedium spp
	Mainly
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Horse Chestnut: Aesculus hippocastanum L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Horsetail: Equisetum arvense L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ipecacuanha: Carapichea ipecacuanha (Brot.) L. Andersson
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ispaghula Husk, Psyllium Husk: Plantago ovata Forssk
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ivy: Hedera helix .L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Kalmegh: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Lapacho: Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart. ex DC.) Mattos
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Lavender: Lavandula angustifolia Mill
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Lemon Balm: Melissa officinalis L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Linseed (Flaxseed): Linum usitatissimum L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Liquorice: Glycyrrhiza glabra L., G. inflata Batalin, G. uralensis Fisch. ex DC
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Lobelia: Lobelia inflata L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Maca: Lepidium meyenii Walp
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Mallow: Malva sylvestris L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Maritime Pine (Bark): Pinus pinaster subsp. pinaster
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Milk Thistle: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Neem: Azadirachta indica A.Juss
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Nettle: Urtica dioica L.; U. urens L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Noni: Morinda citrifolia L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Norway Spruce: Picea abies (L.) H.Karst
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Oats: Avena sativa L
	Family
	Other common name
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Passionflower: Passiflora incarnata L.; P. edulis Sims
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Pelargonium: Pelargonium sidoides DC.; P. reniforme (Andrews) Curtis
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Peony: Paeonia lactiflora Pall
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Peppermint: Mentha × piperita L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Prickly Pear: Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., O. streptacantha Lem., and related species
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Pumpkin (Seed): Cucurbita pepo L., and related cultivars
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Raspberry Leaf: Rubus idaeus L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Red Clover: Trifolium pratense L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name (two drugs are used)
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical Evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Red Vine Leaf: Vitis vinifera L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Rhodiola: Sedum roseum (L.) Scop. (better known under the synonym Rhodiola rosea L.)
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Ribwort Plantain: Plantago lanceolata L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Rosehip: Rosa canina L. & other allied Rosa spp
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Drug name
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Roselle: Hibiscus sabdariffa L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Rosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis L
	Family
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Antimicrobial activity
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Sage: Salvia officinalis L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
St. John's Wort: Hypericum perforatum L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Saw Palmetto: Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small
	Synonym
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Schisandra: Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., S. sphenanthera Rehder & E.H.Wilson
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Sea Buckthorn: Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Senna: Senna alexandrina Mill
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Shatavari: Asparagus racemosus Willd
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Skullcap: Scutellaria lateriflora L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Slippery Elm: Ulmus rubra Muhl
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Spirulina: Arthrospira platensis Gomont, A. maxima Setchell & N.L.Gardner
	Synonyms
	Family
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Squill: Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Tea Tree (Oil): Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel
	Synonym
	Other common names
	Family
	Drug name(s)
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Thyme: Thymus vulgaris L., T. zygis L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Tongkat Ali: Eurycoma longifolia Jack
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Turmeric: Curcuma longa L
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Valerian: Valeriana officinalis L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Verbena: Verbena officinalis L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Wild Indigo: Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R.Br
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Wild Lettuce: Lactuca virosa L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Willow (Bark): Salix alba L., S. nigra L., S. × fragilis L., S. purpurea L. and other Salix spp
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Witch Hazel: Hamamelis virginiana L
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Yohimbe: Pausinystalia johimbe (K.Schum.) Pierre
	Synonyms
	Family
	Other common names
	Drug name
	Botanical drug used
	Main chemical compounds
	Clinical evidence
	Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
	Interactions
	Contraindications
	Adverse effects
	Dosage
	General plant information
	References
Index
End User License Agreement
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright
Preface
Introduction

Definitions, the market and the legal position
References

The Evidence Base for Herbal Medicines:
References

How to use
Açaí: Euterpe oleracea Mart

Family
Other common names
Botanical drug used
Main chemical compounds
Clinical evidence
Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action
Interactions
Contraindications
Adverse effects
Dosage
General plant information
References

Aloe Vera (Gel): Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., A. arborescens Mill. and other Aloe spp
Synonym
Family
Other common names
Drug name
Botanical drug used
Main chemical compounds
Clinical evidence
Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action

Page 341

Hawthorn

Crataegus spp. (mainly C. laevigata (Poir.) DC., C.
monogyna Jacq., C. rhipidophylla Gand., and their
hybrids)

Synonyms:
C. oxyacantha C. rhipidophylla

Family:

Other common names:

Drug name:

Note: C. pinnatifida

Botanical drug used:

Page 342

Indications/uses: Improvement of blood circulation, mild heart failure, mild
antihypertensive and antisclerotic, and as a general heart tonic.

Evidence: Overall, a large number of clinical studies have shown that hawthorn may
represent an effective agent in the treatment of mild cardiovascular disease and ischaemic
heart disease.

Safety: Overall, considered to be safe, although there is no data for use in pregnancy.
Hawthorn preparations are not suitable for self-medication of heart failure and
hypertension; consequently, currently there are no over-the-counter (OTC) preparations on
the UK market, but such OTC drugs are available in some Continental European markets.

Main chemical compounds:
The major constituents of the leaf and flower are flavonoid glycosides, and include
kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, vitexin and orientin glycosides, schaftoside,
isoschaftoside, vivenins and many others, with some procyanidins. Other compounds include
triterpenes (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and crataegolic acid), phenolic acids (chlorogenic
acid and caffeic acid), amines (choline), xanthines and minerals.

The fruits (berries) contain lower levels of flavonoids and higher concentrations of
procyanidins, incuding oligomeric compounds mainly composed of epicatechin units, and
triterpene acids (ursolic, crataegolic and others) (Edwards et al. 2012; ESCOP 2003; Upton
1999a,b).

Clinical evidence:
A Cochrane review concluded that hawthorn extracts showed a significant benefit in symptom
control (shortness of breath and fatigue) and physiological outcomes (exercise tolerance and
pressure-heart rate), compared with placebo, as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart
failure (classes I–III) (Pittler et al. 2008). A more recent review points out that there has been
a large consistent positive outcome from clinical trials using hawthorn extracts for
cardiovascular disease but they have shown inconsistency in terms of criteria used (sample
size, preparation, dosage, among others) (Koch and Malek 2011). Mild antihypertensive, but
clinically significant, effects have been seen in small human trials (e.g. Walker et al. 2002).

Hawthorn preparations are not suitable for use as a self-medication for heart failure and
hypertension. These indications should be managed by a qualified medical professional.

Pre-clinical evidence and mechanisms of action:
The exact mechanisms of action are not clear but many relevant pharmacological effects

and have been described. Inhibition of cAMP-phosphodiesterase, sodium and

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