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TitlePhysiology - Prep Manual For Undergraduates
Author
TagsPhysiology
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.0 MB
Total Pages691
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
Front Matter
Copyright
Dedicated
Foreword
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Contents
Chapter 1 - The Cell and GeneralPhysiology
	CELL AND CELL ORGANELLES
	CELL DEATH
	HOMEOSTASIS
	TRANSPORT ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE
	OSMOSIS AND OSMOTIC PRESSURE
	RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
Chapter 2 - Blood
	BODY FLUIDS
	BLOOD
	METABOLISM OF B12
	METABOLISM OF IRON
	ANAEMIA
	POLYCYTHAEMIA
	LIFE SPAN AND FATE OF RBC
	FRAGILITY
	ESR
	JAUNDICE
	WHITE BLOOD CELLS
	FORMATION OF WBCs
	ABNORMALITIES
	PLATELETS
	CLOTTING OF BLOOD
	ANTICOAGULANTS
	DISEASES
	METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OFDEFECTS IN BLOOD CLOTTING
	CLOT LYSIS
	BLOOD GROUPS
	BLOOD TRANSFUSION
	Rh BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
	LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Chapter 3 - Immunity
	INTRODUCTION
	CLASSIFICATION
	SPECIFIC IMMUNITY
	NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY
	HUMORAL IMMUNITY
	ALLERGY
	AIDS
Chapter 4 - Digestion andAbsorption
	INTRODUCTION
	GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (G.I. TRACT)
	MASTICATION
	SALIVARY GLANDS
	ANATOMY OF STOMACH
	FUNCTIONS OF STOMACH
	VOMITING
	SECRETORY FUNCTION
	SMALL INTESTINE
	SECRETION
	MOVEMENTS
	LARGE INTESTINE
	DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
Chapter 5 - Nutrition
	INTRODUCTION
	REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE
	VITAMINS
	MINERALS
	ABNORMALITIES
	BASAL METABOLIC RATE
Chapter 6 - Excretory System
	INTRODUCTION
	STRUCTURE OF NEPHRON
	BLOOD FLOW TO KIDNEYS
	FORMATION OF URINE
	GLOMERULAR FILTERATION
	REABSORPTION
	SECRETION
	TUBULAR LOAD, TUBULAR MAXIMUM
	PLASMA CLEARANCE
	FORMATION OF DILUTE ORCONCENTRATED URINE
	REGULATION OF ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
	REGULATION OF pH OF BODY FLUIDS
	RENAL FUNCTION TESTS
	MICTURITION
	DIALYSIS
Chapter 7 - Temperature Regulation
	INTRODUCTION
	MECHANISMS OF HEAT PRODUCTION
	MECHANISMS OF HEAT LOSS
	REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE
	ABNORMALITIES IN TEMPERATURE REGULATION
	SKIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS
Chapter 8 - Respiratory System
	INTRODUCTION
	PULMONARY CIRCULATION
	MECHANISM OF RESPIRATION
	PULMONARY PRESSURES
	COMPLIANCE
	WORK OF BREATHING
	VENTILATION
	DEAD SPACE AIR
	ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
	DIFFUSION OF GASES
	DIFFUSING CAPACITY OF LUNGS
	TRANSPORT OF GASES
	TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE
	RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO
	REGULATION OF RESPIRATION
	CHEMICAL REGULATION
	PERIODIC BREATHING
	IMPORTANT RESPIRATORY REFLEXES
	RECEPTORS IN THE AIRWAY
	TERMS USED FOR ALTERED RESPIRATION
	ACCLIMATIZATION
	CYANOSIS
	ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION
	EXPOSURE TO LOW ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
	EXPOSURE TO HIGH ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
	CARDIORESPIRATORY CHANGES DURINGEXERCISE
Chapter 9 - Special Senses
	VISION
	VISUAL ACUITY
	DEPTH PERCEPTION
	RETINA
	RECEPTORS
	PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF RODS
	PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF CONES (COLOUR VISION)
	DARK AND LIGHT ADAPTATION
	NEURONAL CONNECTIONS IN RETINA
	VISUAL PATHWAY
	MUSCLES OF EYE AND EYE MOVEMENTS
	PUPILLARY REFLEXES
	HORNER’S SYNDROME
	HEARING
	STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OFEXTERNAL (OUTER) AND MIDDLE EAR
	STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OFINNER EAR (COCHLEA)
	DEAFNESS
	TASTE
	SMELL
	EQUILIBRIUM
	VESTIBULAR PATHWAY
	NYSTAGMUS
Chapter 10 - Endocrinology
	INTRODUCTION
	HORMONES
	METHODS OF STUDY OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS
	ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
	POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
	THYROID GLAND
	ADRENAL CORTEX AND MEDULLA
	ADRENAL MEDULLARY HORMONES
	ADRENOCORTICAL HORMONES
	OTHER HORMONES
	PANCREAS
	PARATHYROID
	COMPOSITION AND FORMATION OF BONE
	PARATHYROID HORMONE
	VITAMIN D
	CALCITONIN
	TETANY
	RICKETS
	OSTEOMALACIA
	OSTEOPOROSIS
Chapter 11 - Reproduction
	MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
	SPERMATOGENESIS
	SEMINAL VESICLES AND PROSTATE
	SEMEN
	CAPACITATION
	HORMONES OF TESTIS
	PUBERTY AND MALE CLIMACTERIC
	FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
	HORMONES
	MENSTRUAL CYCLE
	OVARIAN HORMONES
	PREGNANCY
	LACTATION
	CONTRACEPTION
Chapter 12 - Nerve and Muscle
	INTRODUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION
	STIMULUS
	INITIATION OF ACTION POTENTIAL
	PROPAGATION OF ACTION POTENTIAL
	RECORDING OF ACTION POTENTIAL
	PROPERTIES OF NERVE FIBRE
	DEGENERATION OF NERVE
	REACTION OF DEGENERATION
	MUSCLE
	INTRODUCTION
	STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
	MUSCLE CONTRACTION
	ENERGETICS OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
	THERMAL CHANGES DURING CONTRACTION
	MUSCLE TENSION
	TYPES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBRES
	PROPERTIES OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
	TETANUS
	FATIGUE
	COMMON TERMS USED
	EMG
	NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
	MUSCLE RIGOUR
	FUNCTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
	COMPARISON OF SKELETAL, CARDIAC ANDSMOOTH MUSCLE
	SMOOTH MUSCLE
Chapter 13 - Cardiovascular System
	INTRODUCTION
	CARDIAC MUSCLE
	INITIATION AND CONDUCTION OFCARDIAC IMPULSE
	NERVOUS CONTROL OF HEART RHYTHM
	CARDIAC CYCLE
	HEART SOUNDS
	ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
	HAEMODYNAMICS
	PULSE
	VENOUS SYSTEM
	CAPILLARY SYSTEM
	CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW
	NERVOUS CONTROL OF BLOOD FLOW
	BLOOD PRESSURE
	VASOMOTOR CENTRE
	SHORT-TERM MECHANISMS REGULATINGBLOOD PRESSURE
	LONG-TERM MECHANISMSREGULATING BLOOD PRESSURE
	CARDIAC OUTPUT
	SHOCK
	REGULATION OF BLOOD FLOW THROUGHSKELETAL MUSCLE
	HEART RATE
	CARDIAC FAILURE
	CORONARY CIRCULATION
	CEREBRAL CIRCULATION
	PULMONARY CIRCULATION
Chapter 14 - Central Nervous System
	INTRODUCTION
	LEVELS OF CNS FUNCTION
	TYPES OF CELLS IN NERVOUS SYSTEM
	SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
	PROPERTIES OF SYNAPSE
	SENSORY SYSTEM
	RECEPTORS
	PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN
	REFLEXES
	IMPORTANT REFLEXES
	SPINAL REFLEXES
	MOTOR SYSTEM
	DESCENDING TRACTS
	DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LATERAL AND MEDIALMOTOR SYSTEM
	DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PYRAMIDAL ANDEXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM
	DECORTICATE PREPARATION
	THALAMUS
	BASAL GANGLIA
	CEREBRAL CORTEX
	CONTROL OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
	PREFRONTAL LOBOTOMY
	PARIETAL LOBE
	HIGHER FUNCTIONS
	SLEEP
	CSF
Index
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Page 2

Prep Manual for Undergraduates

PHYSIOLOGY

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332 Prep Manual for Undergraduates: Physiology

(opticokinetic nystagmus) and person is stationary or when person is rotating but the
visual scene is stationary (vestibular nystagmus). At both these times nystagmus is oc-
curring physiologically. If nystagmus occurs in a person where neither visual scene nor
person is rotating, it is called pathological nystagmus.

VESTIBULAR FUNCTION TESTS

Name the tests used for detecting integrity of vestibular apparatus.

Bárány’s test. �
Caloric stimulation of semicircular canals by instilling either hot or cold water in �
the ear.
Balancing test. Individual is asked to stand perfectly erect with eyes closed. �

MODEL QUESTIONS

Long Questions

1. Describe the process of accommodation in the eye and its nervous pathway.

How is it affected by age?

2. Describe the visual pathway and the effects of lesions at different sites in the

pathway.

3. Describe mechanism of colour vision. How do you classify and test colour

blindness?

4. Describe the changes taking place in the retina when light falls on it.

5. Describe the photochemical mechanism of vision and mechanism of dark

adaptation.

6. Describe the different errors of refraction of eye. How are they corrected?

7. Describe structure and functions of middle ear, and the tests for assessment

of middle ear functions.

8. Describe the mechanism of conversion of sound energy into physiological

signals by the human ear.

9. Classify deafness and tests performed to differentiate them.

10. Describe structure and functions of cochlea.

11. Describe structure and functions of vestibular apparatus.

12. Describe auditory pathway and its peculiarities.

Short Questions

1. Common errors of refraction.

2. Dark adaptation.

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Special Senses 333

3. Particulars of refractive media of the eye.

4. Accommodation for near vision.

5. Pupillary refl exes.

6. Colour blindness.

7. Accommodation.

8. Aqueous humour.

9. Colour vision and its trichromatic theory.

10. Organ of Corti.

11. Conduction deafness.

12. Middle ear and its functions.

13. Cochlear microphonic potential.

14. Tests for hearing and deafness.

15. Basilar membrane.

16. Function of semicircular canals.

17. Vestibular pathway.

18. Attenuation refl ex.

19. Pathway for smell sensation.

20. Sensation of taste.

21. Pathway of taste sensation.

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Index 677

GI tract, 352
growth, 350
metabolic activity, 350
muscles, 352
protein metabolism, 351
respiration, 352
sexual functions, 353
sleep, 352
transcription of genes, 349–350
vitamin metabolism, 351

mineral requirement
for synthesis of, 348

transportation in blood, 349
Th yroid stimulating hormone, 353

mechanism of action of, 353
regulation of secretion, 354

Th yrotropin releasing hormone, 353
Th yrotoxicosis, 355
Tissue resistance, 223
Tissue thromboplastin, 72
Tongue papillae

circumvallate, 321
fi liform, 321
fungiform, 321

Toxaemia of pregnancy, 416
Tracts

corticospinal, 589–590
eff ect of lesion of, 590–591
functions of, 590
originated from, 590

interstitiospinal, 593–594
olivospinal, 593
reticulospinal, 592–593
rubrospinal, 592

function of, 592
tectospinal, 593
vestibulospinal, 593

Transfusion, blood, 81
hazards of mismatched, 83
indications for, 83
precautions during, 83

Transport mechanisms, 9
Transpulmonary pressure, 221
Tricuspid valve, 470
Tropomyosin, 443
Troponin, 443
Tubular maximum, 174–175
Turbulent fl ow, 499

factors causing tendency for, 499
Tympanic membrane, 307

shape of, 307

U
Ultrasonic Doppler fl owmeter, 498
Unipolar chest leads, 491
Universal donor, 81
Universal recipient, 81
Unovulatory cycle, 407
Uraemia, 67
Urea clearance test, 177
Urinary bladder, 191

anatomy of, 191
function of, 191
mechanism of fi lling of, 192–193
nerve supply of, 192

Utricle, 327

V
VA/Q ratio, 234
Vagal tone, 479–480
Valves, 470

bicuspid, 470
semilunar, 470
tricuspid, 470

Van den Bergh test, 58
Varicose veins, 504
Vascular compliance, 501–502
Vascular distensibility, 501
Vasoconstrictive agents, 509
Vasodilator agents, 509–510
Vasomotor centre, 511–513
Vasomotor tone, 512
Vasovagal syncopy, 513
Venous admixture, 239
Venous return, 522
Ventricular

diastole, 480
fi brillation, 458
systole, 480–481

Vestibular apparatus, 327
parts of, 327
sense organs present in, 327
stimuli for, 327

Villus, 127
structure of, 127

Visceral pain, 572
causes of, 572

Viscosity of blood, 499
Vision, fi eld of, 300

colour, 290–291
mechanism of, 290

binocular, 283

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678 Prep Manual for Undergraduates: Physiology

monocular, 283
photopic, 294
scotopic, 294

Visual acuity, 282
clinical testing of, 283
factors aff ecting, 283
importance of, 282

Visual cortex
association areas of, 300

Vital capacity, 226
Vitamin D

lack of, 388
action of, 384

on bone formation, 384
role of, 152–153, 379

Vitamins, 149–153
A, 149

eff ects of defi ciency, 150
functions of, 150

B, 149
D, 149

E, 153
eff ect of, 153
role of, 153

K, 153
Vomiting, 116
von Willebrand factor, 69

W
Wallerian degeneration, 437–438
Water clearance, 181
Wave summation, 455
Weber’s test, 320
Wernicke’s area, 644

functions of, 644
Westergren’s method, 56
Wintrobe’s method, 56

Z
Zinc, 155

functions of, 155

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