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Physical and Technical Problems of
SOI Structures and Devices

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Page 147


Single-wavelength ellipsometric measurements performed on "pseudo-SIMOX"
samples (top Si layer removed) showed refractive indices of BOX layers ranging up to
1.488. However, after heat treatment in oxygen at I 100°C the values have decreased
to about 1.46 which is the value characteristic of silica glass lI8). Note that heat
treatment in argon did not produce this effect; this observation indicates that excess
silicon is probably responsible for the increased refractive indices. Considering the
optical properties of BOX as determined by Si-O and Si-Si bonds, the 1.488 value
corresponds to about 4.2x1()2o Si-Si bonds/em'. However, some caution is needed
even in this case as light absorption associated with the Si-Si bonds was not taken into
account and the possibility, that the BOXlSi-substrate interface is not perfectly flat,
could have influenced the results. Nevertheless, the density of excess silicon as
estimated from the bulk conduction behavior of BOX is similar (see Section 4.1.4).

4.1.2. Interaction between BOXand deuterium
The interaction between BOX and deuterium reveals important structural features of
the BOX layers. This interaction was studied by exposing the samples to D2 gas at
700 - 900 C for up to 40 hours and determine the 0 concentration by nuclear

o:-~~~~~~ __ ~~~~

o 5 \ 0 \ 5 20 25 30 35 40 ~5

Figure /. Concentration of D in BOX produced by exposure to 0 at 750 C and 650
Torr. Curve 1: 90 nm thick thermal oxide grown at 1325 C in Ar-O.5% 02; Curve 2:

annealed SIMOX, the two symbols refer to two set of samples; Curve 3: annealed
SIMOX with epi-Si layer [18].

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reaction technique [19J. The incorporation of D into the BOX is determined by the
rate of reaction between D and Si02 resulting in the formation of D-containing defects
(Si-OD, Si-D) that are stable up to "'I 100°C. The reactions within the BOX exhibit
two components: one is rapid and strongly depends on sample preparation, the other is
much slower and not so sensitive to sample preparation; see Fig.t. Even at 40 hrs
exposure to D2 there is no sign of saturation; at this point the D-concentration

approaches (and for un-annealed samples [not shown] even exceeds 1020 em-3). This
value is much larger than the density of E'· centers ( N 1015 cm-3 for annealed BOX
without irradiation). In contrast to the behavior of BOX, thermal oxide grown at
1325°c (SIMOX annealing temperature) shows the rapid component only with a
saturation value of 5xl018 D/cm3; the same behavior has been observed with silica
glass [20]. It was suggested that in the case of silica glass and thermally grown oxide
the reaction sites are high energy (strained) bonds associated with small bridging bond
angles (17]. The larger concentration of reaction sites in BOX and their time-
dependent reactivity are attributed to a larger proportion of the strained bonds and
defects associated with excess silicon.

4.1.3. Electron-spin-resonance studies
Electron-spin-resonance (ESR) studies provide significant contributions to our
understanding of the structure of BOX layers. The ESR-active defects observed in
SIMOX samples are as follows:
1) a-Si dangling bond (D-defect). a-Si3Si-. with a g-value of 2.0059. Their density in

un-annealed BOX is about 1()20 cm-3-and in annealed BOX is less than 2xl015 cm-3
(if present at all), assuming uniform concentration [12]. D-defects can also be
generated by VUV illumination [21].

2) Crystalline (c) silicon dangling bond associated with SilSi02 interfaces (Pb-
center). c-Si3Si-ISi02, with 2.0013 < g < 2.0088; these have been observed in un-
annealed samples only [22].

3) Si dangling bond in the oxide, 03Si- (E'-center). which has two modifications:
E'")' with 2.00023 <g < 2.00173 and E'll with 2.00168 < g < 2.00209. The E'")'-
centers have been observed in un-annealed samples but not in annealed ones above the
sensitivity of the technique ( 1015 cm3), unless they were irradiated. The generation
rate of these centers at 10 Mrad dose in BOX is about the same as in silica glass
densified by 10% whieh is about ten times higher than normal silica glass [12]. The
E'". -centers are uniformly distributed in the BOX even when irradiated under bias
[23]; this behavior is different from that of thermally grown oxides in which case the
centers are mostly in the vicinity of the SilSi02 interface. It was found that the
generation rate of E'")' -centers is increased by a factor of 25 when the top Si-layer
was etched off [23]. Similarly, hydrogen exposure of SIMOX samples as, for

Page 294

MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) -SOl,
49, 56
mechanical grinding and polishing, 4
melt undercooling, 96
melting, 93, 102, 188
mesa isolation, 62
metallization, 277
micropower circuits, 264
microprecipitates, 79
microwave device, 255
microwave ion source, 241
MISFET (metal insulator
semiconductor field effect transistor),
mobility of carriers, 111, 171, 183,
228, 245, 277
monocrystalline structure, 15, 213,
MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor
field effect transistor) , 9, 55, 119,
169, 190, 199,
negative output resistance, 261
nitride layer, 67
nitridization, 17
noncrystalline silicon dioxide, 135
nucleation centers, 102, 185
nucleation temperature, 99
numerical simulation, 205
operational amplifier, 265
optical lithography, 46
optical characteristics, 16, 23, 166
optical waveguides, 21
optimization methods, 217, 246
optoelectronic, 15,50
oxide charge density, 118,206
oxidized porous silicon (OPS), 21
OXSEF (oxygen-doped silicon
epitaxial films), 56
packaging density, 217
packing density, 39, 46, 221
parasitic capacitance, 170
parasitic lateral bipolar, 259
partially-depleted devices, 8, 128, 199,
passivating effect, 16,57, 105
PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical
vapour deposition), 93, 184
pedestal-like contact, 213

photo-induced current transient
spectroscopy (PICTS), 117
photo-injection studies, 144
photo-magneto-electric (PME) effect,
photoconductivity, 116
photodetector, 19
piezoresistive sensors, 281
planar defect, 40
plasma etch, 5, 49
plasma treatment, 229
poly-Si, 27, 93, 101, 169, 183, 213,
268, 281
polycrystalline film, 44, 56, 83, 94
porous Silicon, 4, 15,41,275
precipitates, 73, 134, 159, 167
pressure sensor, 281
pseudo-MOS transistor, 109
pulse, 93
pulsed radiation interference, 217
quantum efficiency, 20
radiation defect, 80, 166
radiation hardness, 217, 275
radiation stability, 222
radiative recombination, 18


Random Telegraph Signal (RTS), 124
reactive ion etching, 49
recombination, 121, 141, 171
recrystallization, 28, 93
redistribution, 79
refraction index, 21
relaxation time, 115
residual crystalline defects, 126
RF (radio-frequency) magnetron
sputtering, 88
RHEED (reflection high energy
electron diffraction) patterns, 89
RIE (reactive ion etch) process, 275
rocking curves, 89
Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), 68,
saturation current, 46, 202, 256
scattering, 112, 143
Schottky barrier, 59, 112
Secco etch, 29
second ion mass spectrometry (SIMS),
49, 57, 75, 243
seed, 101

Page 295


seeding, 95
self-aligned techniques, 213
self-heating effect, 9,201,261
semi-insulating layer, 55
SIMNI (separation by implantation of
nitrogen), 46, 67
SIMON (separation by implantation of
oxygen and nitrogen), 46, 80
SIMOX (separation by implantation of
oxygen), 3, 27, 46, 56, 67, 73, 79,
114, 133, 207, 213, 241, 247, 255
sintering, 16, 276
SIPOS (semi-insulating
polycrystalline silicon), 56
SIS (semiconductor-insulator-
semiconductor), 117
snapback, 267
solid phase crystallization (SPC), 185
SOS (silicon-on-sapphire), 115, 169
SPE-SOS (solid phase epitaxy silicon-
on-sapphire), 40
spreading resistance, 83, 114,212
sputtering, 52, 158
SRAM, 7, 255
SSIC (seed selection through ion
channeling), 44
stacking faults, 222
stimulating factors, 73
strain gauge, 284
structural properties, 157,212,217,
subboundaries, 28, 169,222
subthreshold slope, 10,46, 55, 191,
257, 277
TESC bipolar transistor, 211
TFT (thin-film transistor), 183
TH-SPE (thermal induced solid phase
epitaxy), 42
thermal oxidation, 16
thermal processes, 16
thermal sintering, 16
thermoionic emission, 281
threshold energy, 188
threshold voltage, 6, 45, 83, 111, 191,
202, 219, 248, 265, 277
topology, 5, 284
transconductance, 111, 171,212,219,

transient technique, 126, 177
transport measurements, 112
trapping, 141, 183, 206, 220
ULSI (ultra large scale integration), 3,
van der Pauw measurements, 114
very large internal surface, 15
VLSI (very large scale integration), 39,
67, 169, 222
waveguiding properties, 19
wet chemical etching, 43
Wheatstone bridge, 284
Zerbst method, 109, 126, 177
ZMR(zone-melting recrystallization)-
SOI,27, 56,169,222

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