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- .60C8OENT) RISOH2 .

JA8 145,689 10108. 938

AUTHOR Schulz, Renate A., fa._. 0 ,. .
TITLE, Personalizing Foreign Laiguage Instruc4onef Learning

Styles and Teaching Options.
,PUB DATE 77 ,

___-- NOTE 161p.; Selsfted Papers from the 19/7 Joint Meeting of
the-Central.Staies 'Conference and the Ohio Modern..i

r -
Language Teachers Association .

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, DESCRIPTORS Audiovisual Aids ;. Cognitive Processes; *Cognitive

Style:, Commenicative.Competence (Languages) ;
Elementary Secondary Education; French; Higher
Educatiodt *Language InstrUction; Language-Research;
Latin; Learning "Chariaeristics; /Learning Processes;
*Learning Theories; Piycholinguislics; 'Reading
Instruction; *SecondAanguage Learning; Spanish; ----:-'&
*Tehching Methods; Textbooks; Video Tape Recordings;
VOcabu4ry Development

-. This voles. consists of the following rapers selected

frOm those 'presented ,at the 1977 Central, States Conference on the
Teaching of tioreign Languages: "Educational Cognitive Style: A
Basis for Petsonalizing Foreign Language Instruction," by Derek N.
Nuhney; (2) "Discovering Student, Learning Styles through Cognitive
Style Mapping," by Helen S. Lepke;. (3) !ELSIE Is no Bnllf or:, On
Utilizing Inforaitiou Concerning Student Learning Styles," by Harry
Reinert; (4) "Reading AsSignments versus Beading Instruftten: Native
Language Strategies and Techniques' for Use. in the Foreign Language
Classroom," by Frank N. Medley,. Jr.; tt) "Foreign Language Vocabulary ,
Learning and Native Language Processes," by 'Laura K. Heilenman; ()
"Teaching Spanish through 4ideotapee! by'Brace I. Beatie-and Jose, J.
Labrador; (7) "International Studies and Foreign Languages: The Omaha
Model,",by Anthony Jung; (8) ,sLearning Theory and Research Findings:
Some Applications to the Hight School Classroom," by Donna Sntton; (9)
"Supplementing the Textbook Attractively, Effectively, and
ReSponsiply," by jUxiith C. Morrow and. Lorraine A. Strasheim; (10)
"Mxpanding Our Sphere of Influence: Latin in the Elementary
Curriculum," by Claudia Edwards (11) "The Natural and the Normal sin
Language Teaching," lot Elio N. Rivers; (12) "Bridging IndividuP.1.
Differences: Empathy nd Communicative Competence," by Elaine K.
.Horwitz and Michael B. Horwitzt-(13) "COamunication-Based Beginning
College French: An Experiment," by Elizabeth Leeman; and Lynn
Vaverly; (14) "The Foreign Language Teacher in Folus: creative
PhotO4raphy.for the Classroom," by Alan Galt and Nancy Huabach; and
(15) "Strategies foiVisibility and recruiteent for Colrege and
University Language Departments," by Kathaellin G. BOikin: (CFR)



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Page 2

Report of Ceiltni-14900 Conference on the Teaching of Forti


*aching C
Edited by

Renate A. Schulz

Derek N. Nunney
Helen S. Lephe
Harry Reinert -

`ip!tra K. Hei
Brtige A. Beati
Jose J. Labrador
Anthony Jung ,
Donna Sutton
Judith C. Morrow
Lorraine A.Strasheim

D91, Claudia Edwards
V 3 Wilga M. Rivers

c31 Elaine K, Horwitz
0,0 Milk' B. Horwitz

Elizabeth Leeman
.3 Lynn Waverly

t Alan Galt dtNancy Humbach
Kathleen G. Boykin












Published by National Textbook COnipiry


Page 81

14arning Theory and
Research fmdings:
Some Applications to
t4e High School Classroom

Donna Sutton .
Northview Hip School, Sylvania; Ohio

it .

Incorporating psychologiCal theory, learning theory, and insights of sociology into
foreign language instruction, while at the same time attempting to teach the four
boric language skills and signitemu cultural contrasts, develop students' copununi-
cttive competence, and provide for individuil learning styles,.attitudes, aptitudes,
and interests in a humanistic classy:x:4M presents a super - human task for the foreign
in'kuage teacher. The task is made all tke more difficult by such restrictions as.48-
minute' classes and the traditional Carnegie unit, 'riot to mention tIte.cowitleu in-
terruptions occasioned by assemblies:4fire drills, field trips, it?&heduled variations
for students, and PA announcements. J

OViilifiliii4ifiTeicliefi;Triiila(ect by a seemingly impossible task; pie=
fet, to ignore thtereticalresearch and keep on. teaching foreign language as it was
taught 'to them. But'thestudent today is not the same as the student of yesterday.
Most of our current tanigage teacheis come from an eia when only "the cream of
the crop" was permitted to take a. foreign language. Today) withlailikage require-

,: rhents reduced or abolished, we find many high school sand college foreign lainguage
programs ;Ming, to accept all students, regardless of *Weir' academitthdities, in
frder to maintain sufficient enrollment.

At SYlvtnia (Ohio) High School, we -have,been relatively successful akbothat-
tyacting students and maintaining an interest in learning Spanish beans of an int
dividualt.std foreign language prognim .-..-Four years, ago we had fiftemi
studyini'Spartishin levels IV and y. Tiday we have 75 and the lower levels have f /


Page 82

Learning Theory and Research 69

increased proportionally': Our total enrollment in Spanish is around 500 or about
16% of-the school population. .

The small town Of Sylvania is located within the lubutbiof Toledo. Thereire
mow transfer students from all over the United States. A few of the students hate

\lived in Spanish-speaking countries. Oneokhe two junior high schools feeding into
the high school offers 33 mort-con tlffirs than the other school. These factors
add to the usual variations orier_figdiainong students assigned to a-ferP4gn language
class. Individualizing instruction seemed to be the only organization feasible' for
meeting the needs of students from a variety of backgrounds. ay.

'Individualization does'not begin Level HI. The reasons for this delay lie in . .
the fact that the vast majority of students bring little pre' us knowledge or exper-
ience to the foreign language classroom. Students need to develop good pronuncia-

,..,* tion habits,' to to varied study techniques, and to be given help in con-
trastive analysis- of-grammatical features. For example, the verb systejn in Spanish
is entirely different, from what students are familiar-with. The idea that all objects ,
aremasiuline or feminine seems a strange concept td a beginning Spanish student

'whose native language is English. During the beginning levels students are also pre,-

' pared for individualized instruction. Alitudents are permitted and encouratt d to'
re-take any -test on which They have scored less than 8070_ Students ,are tau in
both whole-class and small-grOup situations, and-individuals-are occasionally as-

signed another student to serve as their tutor.
At Level III 'students are permitted to7prOceed at- their orate throtIgh pre-

pared materials developed around the text. Eich chapter has four written evalua-
tions4a.vocitbulary quiz, two grammar uizzes, and a composition) and three oral
evaluations (questions concerning the Oding selection, manipulation orthe oral
structure drills and-questions and adaptation of the conversation). 'Althougit the
evaliation techniques closely resemble those used in airadiponal classroom, the stu-
dent must pass all written tests with 80% or higher, agkemonstrate not only the
ability,to- answer the questions following the reading, but that he the vo-
cabulary and grammar strubtures in ordinary conversation, Since testing is done in
small'grotiPs of rho more than seven students, each student is requirecltotpeak more

`''''''11fteirthatrhe-vtaatd-wrder ciassroonl conditions. .
Even under these somewhat rigid conditionsdescribed above, it is possible to ir

incorporate a greit many theoretical concepts within the organization framework.
ograrred learning taught us'that breaking a learning task into call concepts

s it possible for 'students to learn even the most difficult material. Thus, the. -
LAPs(leirriing activity packets), single concept mastery units, or whatever .nanik
'one ch to call the small units fiequently used for individualized programs, do
just that ey give the student small learning tasks. hat can'be mastered with a high
'degree of accuracy. Unlike programmed learning, however, the student has a num-
ber of resources available in order to accomplish this task. He has the written in-
structions for the unit; he has the teactier or an assistant to answ'er questions; he has
the opportunity to question or practice with other classmates; and, of course, he
Can always get an answer from tI4 text !took or tapes which present the basic in-


Page 161

Visibility and Recruitment 147

Oren the opportunity to shine before students and peers alb-as. scho who are
experts in the literatures as well is the languages of the countries. Too of co'I\
leagues hi other disciplines are unaware of Our literary expertise, assuming that our
only concerns deal with the agrepment Of adjectives.

At Slippery Rock, faculty members serve as advisers to the Interns-
lions Club, which is made u essentially of the foreign students on campus. This in-
volvement serves to identify language faculty as people:who are concerned with
foreign students as resource persons for such activities as International Culture Day,
Spanish Club program', festivals, etc. - ..

Along with every other collEge, Slippery Rock has language clubs and language
honorary societies. Aareness that these groups exist is heightened by such.' activi-
ties as international Christmas caroling around the campus, followed by a joint
poly; a Mardi Gras, open to the community; dining out in restaurants in. neighbor-
ing 'cities which feature appropriate foreign cuisines; participation in.= Honors Day
program with French poetry, flamenco dancing, etc.; and a float or bapnerli the
homecoming parade. . . vt

The Humanities and Fine Arts Forum (a series of lectures and presentations by
members of the college Hunianities and Fine &is faculty and invited speakers) is
another area for the visibility of the language faculty as contributing scholars nth-
er than as mere teachers- of that horrible foreign grammar. Long dominated by the

. English department, the annual program is now liberally sprinkled with topics such
as "Don' Quijote Was Mad, Wasn't He?" "Solzhenitsyn "and 'Women in France."

, , If your campus has no such vehicle for treatiye expression, why not start one? If
ton use local talent, it costs no money and shOuld, therefore, meet with little resis-
tance. Your organizing efforts will help to establish the language faculty as dynamic
and interested teacherkaid scholars. When the langhage department becomes an ac-
tive and vital force onthe campus and in the community, the prestige of the depart- .
meat rises, enrollment increases, and dangerbf cutbacks is lessened.

Other Publicity and Public Relations Ploys

A departMent ill only as visible as its faculty and students. It is important that

membentof the language faculty participate in campus-wide offices and committees;
attend the functions of other departments, such as art shows, plays, concerti, and
sports events; and' socialize with the rest of the community and faculty in gourmet

clubs, bridge clubs, at poker partieI and to Quarterback and Faculty 'Kornai': to

Publicity: Before and afte; each of the activities and programs described above,
there must be appropriate, widespread publicity. In many cases the school has 4,
service that will take care of this for you if provided;with the information. If-not,
the language department must- do it. If your school does not have a faculty WWI.
letter, suggest -that one be started and then fill it With news of your high school
visitation, language festivals, etc. Announce yout programs in local newspapers,


Page 162

148 Petst!halizing -Foreign Language


campus newspapers, and over cooperative rago stations.
Put up posters in the

supermarket thillaundromat. Give out certificates to all students participat-

ing in internatiofial Culture Day activities. Send letters to patents of students

come to summer ,Write letters to high school guidance counselors,

attention to the programs available. Apprise travel agencies of the availability of

your ?language for Travelers" courses, etc'

Many of the pre' and activities Mentioned might not be practical for all

campUses. With sonic dons, however, most of the suggestions could be im-

plemented. Hopefully,. these descriptions will suggest
other even more valuable,

exciting, and effective courses of action. There are many things 'that an be done.

The department that tits back and waits for the trend to reverse itself may not be

around' when it does. The time for action is now. The key to departmental vitald-

ity, student - recruitment, community involvement, and summer programs as

severance, dedication, and inAhort, lots of hard work.


ACTFL Review,piddirhed annually in conjunction with The iimelgat'ouncil
on the Teaching of Fdreign Languages

An Integrative Approach to Foreign Language
Hardbound 9376-8

Teaching. Choosing Among the Options, ed. Paperback 9376-2

Jarvis, VoL 8 (1976)
Perspective: A New Freedom, e4. hails, Hardbound 9352-0

Vole 7 (1975) Paperback.9355-5

The Challenge of Communication, ed. Jarvis Hardbound 9350-4

VoL76 (1974)
A Paperback 9351-2

Responding to New Realitiei, ed. Jarvis, Hardbound 9349-0

Vol. S(1973)
Paperback 9348.2

Foreign Language Education: A Reappraisal, Hardbound 9333-4

ed. Linn, Vol. 4 (1972) Paperback 9347-4

Pluralism in Foreign Language Education, Hardbound 9325-3

ed., lange,`VoL 3 (1971)
Individualization Of Instruction, ed. Lange Paperback 9320-2

Vol. i (1970)
Foreign Language Education: An Overview, Paperback 9312-1

ed. Birkrnaier, Vol. 1 (1969)

C.entrakStatee'ConfetentelProoeedinp, published annually in conjunction

with The'C'entral State: Conference on the retching of Foreign Languages

Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction: 9305-9

Learning,Styles and Teaching Options, ed.

. Schulz (1977)
Teaching for Communication in the Foreign 9304-0

Language Classroom, ed. Schulz (1976)
The Culture RevolutioVn Foreign Language


; Jaching, ed. Lafaysffi (1975) -

Careen, Communication do Culture in Foreign Language 9302-4

Teaching, ed. Grlttner (1974)
Student Motivation and the Foreign uage 9301-6

Tekcher, ed. Grittner (1973)

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