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Titlepersonality factors as cultural specific predictors of anxiety among mainland chinese and ...
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concerning prediction of trait anxiety from harmony and face (i.e., they are both stronger

predictors of trait anxiety for Chinese), harmony (β = -.19, p < .001) and face (β = .25, p < .001)

were significant predictors of trait anxiety for Caucasians only. For both Chinese and Caucasian

students, neither modernization nor defensives was a significant predictor of trait anxiety, thus,

hypotheses 10d and 10e concerning prediction of trait anxiety from modernization and

defensiveness as predictors of trait anxiety for Chinese only were not supported.

Hierarchical regression of state anxiety on personality constructs as predictors. Table 9

presents results of hierarchical regression of state anxiety on personality constructs for Chinese

and Caucasian students. All the personality constructs combined accounted for 22% of the

variance of state anxiety for Chinese, and 28% of the variance for Caucasians.

Components of perfectionism accounted for 10% [ F (3, 320) = 11.72, p < .001] of the

variance of state anxiety for Chinese, and 13 % [ F (3, 329) = 15.73, p < .001] of the variance for

Caucasians. Specifically, self-oriented perfectionism (β = -0.15, p < .05) predicted state anxiety

for Caucasians only, but in an unexpected negative direction, suggesting that for Caucasians, the

higher the tendency of perfectionism toward self, the lower the state anxiety they experienced.

Other-oriented perfectionism was not a significant predictor either for Chinese or for Caucasians.

Similar to predicting trait anxiety, socially prescribed perfectionism was a significant predictor of

state anxiety in an expected positive direction for both Chinese (β = .29, p< 0.001) and

Caucasians (β = .41, p < .001). Although difference of coefficients did not reach a significant

level (z = 1.42, ns), socially prescribed perfectionism appeared to be a stronger predictor of state

anxiety for Caucasians (β = .41) than for Chinese (β = .29). These results in general failed to

support hypotheses 7b and 7c concerning prediction of state anxiety from socially prescribed

perfectionism (i.e., a stronger predictor for Chinese) and self-oriented perfectionism (i.e., a

stronger predictor for Caucasians in a positive direction).

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Self-construal, once the variance of state anxiety accounted for by perfectionism was

partialed out, accounted for an additional 2% of the variance for Chinese [∆F (2, 318) = 3.82, p <

.05] and 6% of the variance for Caucasians [∆F (2, 327) = 12.00, p < .001]. Specifically, for both

Chinese and Caucasians, interdependent self-construal was not a significantly predictors of state

anxiety, but independent self-construal predicted state anxiety in an expected negative direction

( = -.15, p < .01 for Chinese; = -.25, p < .001 for Caucasians). These results indicated that for

both Chinese and Caucasian students, the higher their independent self-construal, the lower the

trait anxiety they reported. Although the difference did not reach statistical significance (z = 1.58,

ns), independent self-construal did appear to be a better predictor of state anxiety for Caucasians

( = -.25) than for Chinese ( = -.15). Therefore, although theses results did not support

hypothesis 8a concerning prediction of state anxiety from interdependent self-construal (i.e.,

predictor for Chinese only), they partially supported hypothesis 8b concerning prediction of state

anxiety from independent self-construal (i.e., stronger predictor for Caucasians).

Components of collective self-esteem accounted an additional 7 % of the variance of

state anxiety for Chinese [∆F (4, 314) = 7.06, p < .001] and 5 % for Caucasians [∆F (4, 323) =

5.39, p < .001] when variance of state anxiety accounted for by perfectionism and self-construal

were partialed out. Specifically, membership collective self-esteem predicted state anxiety in an

expected negative direction equally for both Chinese ( = -.19, p < .001) and Caucasians ( = -

.18, p < .05, z = .10, ns), suggesting that for both Chinese and Caucasians students, the higher

their membership esteem, the lower the state anxiety they reported. However, the result that

membership collective self-esteem predicted state anxiety equally for both groups failed to

support hypothesis 9 that expected membership collective self-esteem to be a stronger predictor

for Chinese students.

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