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TitlePersonality and Life-Style of Young Male Managers. A Logical Learning Theory Analysis
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Page 1

Personality and Life-Style of
Young Male Managers
A Logical Learning Theory Analysis


Department of Psychological Sciences
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana

With a Foreword by Douglas W. Bray

A C A D E M I C PRESS 1982

A Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace jovanovich, Publishers

New York London

Paris San Diego San Francisco Sao Paulo Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Page 2

Materials from the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule adapted and

reproduced by permission. Copyright 1954, ©1959 by the Psychological

Corporation. All rights reserved.


A C A D E M I C P R E S S , I N C .
I l l Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003

United Kingdom Edition published by
A C A D E M I C P R E S S , I N C . ( L O N D O N ) L T D .
24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 7 D X

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Rychlak, Joseph F .

Personality and life style of young male managers.

Bibliography: p.

Includes indexes.

1. Executives-Psychology-Longitudinal studies.

2. Employment of men-Longitudinal studies. I. Title

HF5500 .2 .R92 1982 658 .4 ' 094 82-8791

ISBN 0 - 1 2 - 6 0 5 1 2 0 - 8 AACR2


82 83 84 85 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Page 146

142 10. Financial-Acquisitive Life Theme

The less involved man on financial acquisitive approaches money mat-

ters in a controlled and deliberate manner. Money is not what structures

his life (EPPS order), money is what one receives because of a work

structure within which one does a good job and it is hoped succeeds

(EPPS endurance). Money is phenomenally viewed as a reward for "ser-

vices rendered" rather than as an expression of personal power. The

man who is low on financial-acquisitive feels uneasy in bartering situa-

tions. He does not like to take chances and would rather avoid the risk of

losing altogether by putting money concerns out of his mind completely

(projectives, EPPS abasement). When he is forced to look after his own

financial affairs he approaches the task with solemnity and "counts his

pennies." Doubtless, in time he may acquire a significant nest egg in this

manner, but it is viewed by him as hard-won gains.

Here is an excerpt from a college case history, in which the adapt-

ability of the financially-acquisitive man is highlighted.

In our first interview with this man he said " I want money and I plan to get a
lot of it." He came from a financially impoverished background and had
always worked hard, putting himself through college as he held down a job in
the evenings in a fast food restaurant. In fact, he became the manager of this
restaurant and continued to work there on a part-time basis during his first year
with the Bell System. When asked what he hoped to do with his money this
man replied: " I want a bigger house, lots of clothes—15 to 20 suits at a time. I
want to join a country club, have one or two new cars a year, a summer
cottage, and a boat." While in college he married a young woman who came
from a wealthy family, and this relationship in turn reinforced his desire to
pursue financial goals in life. Interestingly, he ran into trouble in his first job
assignment due to what he called a "personality clash" with a superior. He
was very near to being let go, but, when given an opportunity to move into a
sales position he took it and proved an immediate success. His impressive
wardrobe and open, confident manner had made him a "super" salesman.
People seem to like him on first contact, though he may "wear thin" with
time. Thanks to the commissions he earned, he readily doubled his salary and
was very pleased with life—even though he realized that his future in manage-
ment was dubious. He eventually moved into a very fine home, aided to some
extent with financial support from his in-laws, and continued living at an
economic level above his peers on the job. Near the end of our study he had
branched out into a small business enterprise (ticket agency) which he kept
going "on the side."

A noncollege example of a man highly involved in finan-

cial-acquisitive follows.

This man has been a life-long coin collector, and when midway through
the study he developed hemorrhoids the clinical interpretation of "anal per-

Page 147

Analysis and Case History Examples 143

sonality" made by our interviewer was probably inevitable—particularly con-
sidering this subject's commitment to the accumulation of wealth. He did not
attend college because he felt it would just delay him from advancing his
economic level unnecessarily. He considers himself a "doer" rather than a
student of "how to" do things. He was the kid on the block who had the most
successful, largest newspaper route. In high school he had a number of mon-
ey-making jobs, from selling programs at sporting events to pumping gas after
school hours. Just as soon as he had minimal capital available he put a down
payment on an income property and began fixing it up for eventual sale. By
the time we met him he already had two properties, one of which he was
living in. Eventually, he obtained a real-estate license and continued in this
part-time profession throughout our study period. He keeps up on things going
on in the community and reads the financial page in depth. He takes as much
A.T.&T. stock as he can get through his company's stock-purchasing program.
He also buys other stocks from time to time on a speculative basis. As of our
last interview, he had just acquired another duplex property and moved his
wife and child into one of these units. We lost count of the properties he had
turned over during the course of our study. He impressed several of our
interviewers with his shrewdness in business affairs, even though his success
on the job was only mediocre.

We next turn to the case of a noncollege man who was little involved
on the financial-acquisitive life theme.

Our interviewers have wondered how this man ever reached second level
by the close of our study period. He describes himself as having suffered a life-
long inferiority complex. He just drifted into the telephone company after high
school, and worked diligently, always manifesting a strong dependency on his
bosses. When he got into management he was very threatened, and has "hung
on" to his job through great personal effort. He is the sort who may be found
standing out in the corridor 5 minutes before a meeting, afraid to knock on the
boss's door. Our interviewers consistently described him as having a very
modest, penny-pinching, working-class approach to life. He never expects
much, and with each reward (e.g., promotion) he has received on the job he
seems to have become more self-critical. He has never done anything in the
community. He married a woman who works as a nurse, and she has always
taken care of the family budget, pays the bills and so forth. He says " I just turn
over my check to her on payday and that's the last I see of it. She gives me an
allowance." He owned a small home, and when they had their third child he
had a room built on it rather than seek a new and larger residence. He is more
successful than he ever dreamed he would be in life. Left to his wood-working
hobby and the odd jobs around the house, he is if not happy, then at least
content. Interestingly, his wife suffers from a variety of psychophysiological
complaints for which she has been "doctored" over the years.

The final example we have is of a college man who was quite talented
and successful in his work.

Page 292

Subject Index 293

religious-humanism, 218, 220, 221
service, 235, 236

Projectives subordinate role
definition, 49
life-theme findings

ego-functional, 118
financial-acquisitive, 135, 136
locale-residential, 149
marital-familial, 167, 168
parental-familial, 184
recreational-social, 201
religious-humanism, 216

Protopoint, 23, see also Meaning-extension

Recreational-social life theme, see also Life

analysis and case history examples,

basic data on (Figure 8), 85
definition, 60

Reinforcement value, see also Affection;
Logical learning theory

operational measure of affection, 29
research on, 29-30

Religious-humanism life theme, see also
Life themes

analysis and case history examples,

basic data on (Figure 9), 85
definition, 60, 61

Rotter incomplete sentence blank (ISB)
description of, 48
life-theme findings

financial-acquisitive, 136
recreational-social, 202
religious-humanism, 218-220


basic, of present volume, 6
problems with, 13

Sarnoff survey of attitudes toward life
description of, 48
life-theme findings

ego-functional, 114
marital-familial, 162
parental-familial, 178
recreational-social, 196
religious-humanism, 212

Scope score, definition, 70, see also Thrust
score; Thrust-scope analyses

Selectively committed, definition, 92
Self-identity, in telosponsivity, 25 see also

Sequacious meaning, definition, 24, see

also Precedent meaning
Sequentiality, 41
Service life theme, see also Life themes

analysis and case history examples,

basic data on (Figure 10), 86
definition, 61

Sorts, in data analysis
operating company, 77
total sample, changers, 77
total sample, reliable, 77

Tautology, see also Telosponse

definition, 22
versus frequency/contiguity

explanations, 52
partial, in analogy, 52

Teleology, Telic, see also Telosponse
definition, 18
determinism, 24
in developmental theory, 34
in Freudian "fuero" concept, 35
future of in psychology, 263
and the meaning of development, 42

Teleonomic, Piagetian term, 39
Telosponse, see also Logical learning

begins with birth, 24
definition, 21
in first year of life, 260
ultimately arbitrary, 24, 25

Theme influence scoring
findings on life themes

ego-functional, 121, 122
financial-acquisitive, 138, 139
locale-residential, 152-154
marital-familial, 170-172
occupational, 104-106
parental-familial, 188, 189
recreational-social, 205, 206
religious-humanism, 221, 222
service, 237, 238

general description, 61, 62

Page 293

294 Subject Index

negative influence, 62, 63
positive influence, 62
reliability of, 65, 66
scoring procedure, 78, 79

Theory, see also Method
alternatives in explanation, 259-263
confounded with method, 16
definition, 14

Thrust-scope analyses
broadly committed, 91
narrowly involved, 92
scoring procedure in, 90-92
selectively committed, 92
uninvolved, 92
life-theme findings

ego-functional, 122, 123
financial-acquisitive, 139, 140
locale-residential, 154
marital-familial, 172
occupational, 106

parental-familial, 189
recreational-social, 206
religious-humanism, 222
service, 238

Thrust score, definition, 70, see also Scope
score; Thrust-scope analyses

Truth, as correspondence, 15


Uninvolved, definition, 92


Variable(s), see also Method
independent, of present volume, 50
as methodological terminology, 16
person versus situation, 257-259
as theoretically framed, 258

Verbal report
as introspective theory, 20
in test taking and prediction, 53

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