Download Peacemaking: The Inside Story of the 1994 Jordanian-Israeli Treaty PDF

TitlePeacemaking: The Inside Story of the 1994 Jordanian-Israeli Treaty
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.1 MB
Total Pages372
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Peacemaking
The Inside Story of the

1994 Jordanian–Israeli Treaty

509 Peacemaking TP 12/16/05 3:42 PM Page 1

Page 186

and comprehensive peace between the Arab states, the Palestinians and
Israel as per the Madrid invitation’. The Jordanians wanted to use the
word ‘comprehensive’ to qualify the goal of peace, but the Israelis thought
that the Jordanian definition of ‘comprehensiveness’ had a negative
connotation that spilled over from the Syrian–Israeli track. To the Israeli
delegation, the emphasis on comprehensiveness threatened to diminish
the benefit Israel thought it could get from purely bilateral negotiations
where it could foster disparity between the various tracks of negotiations
to its own advantage. The Jordanians explained that this section was
general in nature and, if the discussion was caught up in semantics, it
could go on forever. On the other hand, the Israelis were worried that
Jordan would slow down its negotiations with Israel tactically to keep
pace with other stalled negotiation tracks, thus, the purely bilateral
nature of the talks would be compromised. In fact, Rubinstein tried to
maneuver his way into getting a commitment from the Jordanians to
sign a peace treaty if all Jordanian–Israeli agenda topics were satisfactorily
resolved.

For its part, the Jordanian delegation had reservations about the
wording the Israelis proposed to use with reference to the parties to
peace. Israel favored the use of ‘achieving peace between Israel and its
neighbors’, a phrase that would drop the mention of Palestinians and
make Israel sound as if it was at the center of the region. The Jordanians
argued that in such a phrase, the word ‘Israel’ would be the only definite
term while ‘its Arab neighbors’ seemed like a burdensome adjunct. The
two sides agreed eventually on the wording ‘between neighboring Arab
countries, the Palestinians and Israel’.

The second part of the proposed agenda, Section B, cited Resolution
242 to form the basis of negotiations on topics of contention. The
Israeli understanding of Resolution 242 was again debated. The famous
article ‘the’ and the connotations of dropping it from the English text of
the Resolution was debated to no avail. Israel insisted that it had abided
by the requirements of the Resolution when it withdrew from Sinai, and
that it was not about to make generous concessions and withdraw from
more territories. By this time, both sides had elucidated their position
thoroughly, and the assimilation of their points of view on the issue
needed a high-level understanding, or a package deal. The Israeli delegation
did not arouse Jordanian fears over the applicability of Resolution 242
to Jordanian lands that Israel had occupied, but expressed their nagging

T H E P R O C E S S S U R V I V E S

[167]

509 08 Peacemaking Chapter 8 13/12/05 2:49 PM Page 167

Page 187

worry that Jordan would some day include the West Bank among
the Jordanian territories that should be the subject of withdrawal.
Majali, al-Khasawneh and Tarawneh all indicated that Jordan had made
its decision not to negotiate, in lieu of the Palestinians or on their behalf,
Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank or any other occupied Palestinian
land.

On the issue of security, the two sides had their differences over
the item addressing the stockpiling and the potential deployment and
use of weapons of mass destruction. The Israeli delegation would never
accept the use of the word ‘deployment’, pointing out that this would be
a limiting factor to Israel’s right to self-defense against other regional
enemies such as Iran and Iraq.

On the issue of refugees and displaced persons, the Jordanians
insisted that these issues be resolved in accordance with the relevant
United Nations resolutions. The Israelis suggested that these two categories
be referred to in one item, stating that the issues of refugees and displaced
persons would be resolved in accordance with mutually accepted inter-
national instruments. It was curious that the Israeli proposal used the
phrase ‘accepted international instruments’, as this had been introduced
by al-Khasawneh instead of ‘peace treaty’ in reference to the culmination
of the bilateral negotiations.

On water, there was almost an immediate agreement, although
both Israeli and Jordanian water negotiators were considered tough and
unyielding. The prompt agreement was the result of informal talks that
the side committee on water, energy and the environment had conducted,
starting in the third round. The wording did not touch on the details of
water rights, thereby postponing any disagreements to a later time in the
negotiations.

It was during the sixth round of negotiations that King Hussein
underwent surgery for cancer at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota
in August, 1992. When he was released a week later from the hospital,
he and her Majesty, Queen Noor, went to their riverside home in
Maryland, near Washington, for a period of convalescence. While they
were there, our delegation was able to visit them. We sat with the King
on the terrace of his Maryland home, where he informed us that he and
Queen Noor would be having dinner the following day with President
and Mrs Bush, a piece of news that pleased us immensely. He then
asked about the negotiations and how they were going, and touched on

P E A C E M A K I N G

[168]

509 08 Peacemaking Chapter 8 13/12/05 2:49 PM Page 168

Page 371

Mid East Review 163
Miller, Aaron 38, 145, 148, 231, 254
Moda’i, Yitzhak 11
Mossad 315–16
Mu’allem, Walid 244
Muasher, Anis 130–1
Muasher, Marwan 17, 28, 34, 39, 47, 53,

55, 105, 176, 188–90
Mulki, Hani 276, 283, 287, 314–15
Musa, Amir 17
Muslim Brotherhood Movement 71,

81–4, 159, 176, 194, 229

N
al-Nafier, Shabab 194–5
Najjab, Suleiman 132, 194
Nasser, Gamal Abdul 6, 82, 99, 159
Nazzal, Mohammad 204
Netanyahu, Benjamin 48, 244, 314, 316
New York Times 206, 235
Noor, Queen 168

O
Oslo Accord 199, 218–19, 232–40, 243,

245, 255, 282, 295, 302, 317

P
Palestine Interim Self-Governing Authority

(PISGA) 96, 103, 112, 125
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

6–13, 23, 30, 68–71, 82–3, 103,
119–22, 132, 143, 160–1, 172, 182,
187–8, 193–8, 201–8, 212, 215–18,
227–34, 238, 243–4, 295, 301–2, 309,
311

Peel Commission 3
Pelletreau, Robert 10, 209–10
Peres, Shimon 11–12, 164–5, 205, 240,

243–4, 257, 263–6, 277, 284, 287,
289, 294, 297, 303, 305, 314

Perez de Cuellar, Javier 17
Peron, Marc 143–7, 175
Petra 189–90
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine

(PFLP) 71, 83
Professional Association Center, Amman

72–3
Prujenin, Amran 95, 109–10

Q
Qaddumi, Farouq 211
al-Qadi, Nayef 28, 41–2, 47, 51, 53, 59,

185, 208, 221–2, 278
al-Qaeda 318
Qarrash, Yacoub 194
Qasrawi, Farouq 249
al-Qassim, Ania 24
Qassis, Nabil 35, 37, 97
al-Qawuqji, Fawzi 4
Quant, William 198
Quosous, Aktham 27–8, 31, 33, 43, 102,

109, 190–1, 226
Qura’i, Ahmad 234

see also Abu Ala’

R
Ra’ad Ibn Zaid, Prince 45
Rabat summit (1974) 23, 72–3, 82, 193
Rabin, Yitzhak 8, 104, 106, 119, 124, 155,

158, 161–6, 175, 179, 202–7, 211, 230,
233, 240, 257, 264, 277, 282–3,
287–92, 296–9, 303, 305, 313–14

Rabinovich, Itamar 163, 176, 231–2
Al-Rai 189–92, 210, 267, 286
Rantissi, Abdul Aziz 210
Rawashdeh, Bashir 172
Reagan, Ronald 15, 79
Red Cross 143
Reisner, Daniel 294–6, 301–2
Reuters 202–5
Road Map 318–19
Rogers Plan (1969) 15
Rosen, Yacov 285
Rosenthal, Elyahu 88–9
Ross, Dennis 113, 209, 231, 239–40,

253–6, 266, 275
Rubinstein, Elyakim 18–21, 26, 30–8,

43–62, 65–7, 85–101, 105, 109–18,
162–74, 180–8, 192, 196, 204–5, 208,
221, 224–5, 232, 236, 249, 253–5, 261,
267, 271–82, 285–7, 293–7, 305, 311

S
Sabel, Robby 53, 89, 91, 95, 98–100,

106–7, 162, 182–3, 253
al-Safadi, Ayman 194
Santayana, George 91

P E A C E M A K I N G

[352]

509 17 Peacemaking Index 13/12/05 2:46 PM Page 352

Page 372

Saqarat, Nidal 286–7, 290, 300–1
Satloff, Robert 209–10
Savir, Uri 234
Schultz, George 9, 15
Schwebell, Stephan 98–9
September 11th 2001 attacks 318
Sha’ath, Nabil 49, 114, 203–4
Shafi, Abdul 96, 231
Shamir, Uri 223–4, 262
Shamir, Yitzhak 10–12, 17, 45, 58–9, 65,

69, 124, 137, 155, 158, 161, 175, 198
Shammas, Suheil 25, 39, 44, 47–8
Sharansky, Nathan 315
al-Share’, Farouq 17, 165, 211
Sharon, Ariel 11, 103, 315–18
Shbeilat, Laith 74–9, 194
Shehadeh, Raja 30–1
Shevardnadze, Edward 133
Shoval, Zalman 53, 66–7, 113
Shukri, Ali 279, 281
Shuqeiry, Ahmad 6–7
Shurdum, Tahseen 228, 253, 257, 271,

273, 276, 279–80, 290, 297–8, 304
Sinai 7, 57, 117, 167, 318
Succession of States rule 272–3

T
Taher, Ghadeer 119–20
Talal, King 5, 69
Tamari, Salim 143
al-Tameemi, Abdul Rahman 171
Tarawneh, Fayez 28, 34, 39, 48, 50, 53–8,

69, 95–8, 115, 125, 131–2, 136,
141, 168, 173, 192, 195, 208–9, 222,
228, 232, 235–9, 248–59, 261, 264–7,
271–7, 284–7, 290, 293–7, 302–5,
311–12, 315–16

Time Magazine 205
Toledano, Nissim 204, 206
Toukan, Abdallah 88–9, 109, 125, 131–6,

150, 181–2, 213, 253, 304
Toukan, Safwan 228, 252, 264
Truman, Harry S. 148, 156

U
United Nations 3–6, 9–15, 45–6, 49, 54,

62–5, 90, 92, 99–101, 112–18,
125–8, 136, 144–9, 167–8, 180–4,
196, 277, 284, 308, 316, 318

Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian
Refugees 91, 149

V
Vardi, Yossi 266, 275–6, 304
Verstandig, Tony 264

W
Wallach, Aliza 163
Washington Declaration (1994) 264, 283,

313
Washington Post 203, 211, 227
Weizman, Ezra 305
West Bank 4–11, 23, 26, 46, 57, 60,

63–5, 70, 73, 79, 84, 89, 93, 97–100,
107–8, 112–13, 117, 120, 161–2,
167–8, 175, 182, 196, 211, 229, 236,
238, 256–9, 270, 301, 309, 313, 315,
318

Woodhead, Sir John 3
World Bank 135, 142, 215, 275–6
Wurzburger, Uri 102–3, 109–10
Wye River negotiations (1998) 8, 244,

311, 314–15

Y
Yarmouk University 72, 74
Yassin, Sheikh Ahmad 204, 316
Yatom, Danny 299, 306

Z
al-Zahar, Mahmoud 210
Zaslovsky, Dan 138–40, 169–71, 174
Zionism 2–3, 14, 57, 155–8, 194
al-Zuhour, Marj 206–7, 210–11

I N D E X

[353]

509 17 Peacemaking Index 13/12/05 2:46 PM Page 353

Similer Documents