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TitlePatenting Lives (Intellectual Property, Theory, Culture)
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.2 MB
Total Pages213
Table of Contents
                            Contents
List of Contributors
Acknowledgements
Introduction: Patent Publics, Patent Cultures
PART 1: CONTEXT
	1 The Legal Framework Surrounding Patents for Living Materials
PART 2: HUMAN RIGHTS AND ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS
	2 Life as Chemistry or Life as Biology? An Ethic of Patents on Genetically Modified Organisms
	3 The Right to Development, African Countries and the Patenting of Living Organisms: A Human Rights Dilemma
PART 3: MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH
	4 The Genetic Sequence Right: A Sui Generis Alternative to the Patenting of Biological Materials
	5 Forfeited Consent: Body Parts in Eminent Domain
PART 4: TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
	6 Beyond ‘Protection’: Promoting Traditional Knowledge Systems in Thailand
	7 Plant Genetic Resources and the Associated Traditional Knowledge: Does the Distinction between Higher and Lower Life Forms Matter?
PART 5: AGRICULTURE
	8 Analysis of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Agrobiodiversity Conservation in Nepal
	9 Is More Less? An Evolutionary Economics Critique of the Economics of Plant Breeds’ Rights
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 212

Index 199

proteins, recombinant, and limitations of

patent system 90–1

public policy and patent applications 17–18

Re Abitibi 41, 43, 45
Re Application of Abitibi Co. 41, 43, 45
Re Bergy 42–3, 45
recombinant proteins and limitations of

patent system 90–1

research exemptions 18–20

Rifkin, Jeremy 36

right to development 54–8

Rio Declaration on Environment and

Development 50

Roberts, Richard 32

Roos, Nikolas 142

Rose, Carol 50–1

Salazar, Silvar 65

sanctity and violability 36–7, 50–1

Schmeiser, Monsanto Canada Inc. v. 41–2,
46, 47–8, 48, 140, 146–7, 155–6

scientific background to biotechnology

28–30

selection mechanism for plant breeds’ rights

190–4

sequence hypothesis 31

Sharp, Phillip 32

Singer, Joseph 36

Snow, C.P. 2

Somerville, M. 36

specification requirements of patent law

12–18, 49

sperm as property 117

spleen cells, ownership of 112

split genes 32

standards in patent law 37–9

State, role of 57

stem cells, human embryo (hESC),

patenting of 18

sufficiency requirement of patent

applications 15

sui generis system of intellectual property

92–3

synthetic dye industry 183

Technical Board of Appeal 83–4

technology, evolutionary economics as way

to study 180–3

Thailand

biopiracy 126, 126–8, 138

Community Forests Act (CFA) 135–6

community rights and traditional

knowledge 134–6, 138

databases of traditional knowledge 137

Geographical Indications (GI) protection

130–1

laws in 130–2

One Tambon One Product (OTOP) 137

Patent Act 131

People’s Constitution 135

Plant Variety Protection (PVP) Act 131

Protection and Promotion of Traditional

Thai Medicinal Intelligence Act

(1999) 132

targeting legal treatment of traditional

knowledge 132–4

threats additional to biopiracy 128–30,

129–30
Tobin, B. 123

totipotent cells 18

traditional knowledge

AU Model Law 70–2

biopiracy discourse 123

biopiracy threat in Thailand 126, 126–8,
138

and community rights 134–6, 138

databases of 137

definitions 121–2

failure of intellectual property rights

137–8

intellectual property rights discourse

123–4

international fora 124–5

One Tambon One Product (OTOP) 137

and plant genetic resources (PGRs)

149–55

promotion of 129, 138

protection of 21–3, 65–8

roles of 122

targeting legal treatment of 132–4

Thai legislation 130–2

threats additional to biopiracy 128–30,

129–30
value of 123

transfer RNA (tRNA) 29–30

TRIPS (Agreement on Trade Related

Aspects of Intellectual Property

Rights) 3, 17, 39, 56, 57n18, 59,

86–8, 124, 142–4

triptych of ethics, biotechnology and patent

law 27–8

Page 213

Patenting Lives200

tRNA (transfer RNA) 29–30

UC Irvine Fertility case 116–17

UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO)

14, 18

Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA) 108,

111

uniqueness and fungibility 35–6, 48–9

United Kingdom, implementation of

European Directive 10–11

United States

case law and biotechnology 39–40

Plant Patent Act 1930 40, 40n66

Plant Variety Protection Act 1970 40

United States of America v Dorothy R.
Graber 95, 109

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

(UDHR) 55, 55n9, 59

UPOV Convention 40, 40n72

Utkarsh, G. 151

Venner v State 108
Vienna Declaration and Platform for Action

55

violability and sanctity 36–7, 50–1

viruses as patentable 17

vitalism 31, 32–4

Wellcome 13
willingness to pay for conservation. see

farmers’ willingness to pay for

conservation in Nepal

Wöhler, Friedrich 33

Wood, David 153

World Intellectual Property Organisation

(WIPO) 124–5

yeast 39

York v Jones 109

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