Download Osteoporosis for Dummies (ISBN - 0764576216) PDF

TitleOsteoporosis for Dummies (ISBN - 0764576216)
TagsFor Dummies
File Size3.5 MB
Total Pages314
Table of Contents
                            Osteoporosis For Dummies
	About the Authors
	Author Acknowledgments
	Contents at a Glance
	Table of Contents
		About This Book
		Conventions Used in This Book
		What You’re Not to Read
		Foolish Assumptions
		How This Book Is Organized
		Icons Used in This Book
		Where to Go from Here
	Part I: Understanding Your Bones
		Chapter 1: Boning Up on Osteoporosis
			Defining Osteoporosis
			Who, Me? How Osteoporosis May Affect You
			Why Early Diagnosis Is So Important
			Improving Your Peak Bone Density — And Your Children’s
			Evaluating Osteoporosis Therapy
			Terminology 101: Keeping Your “Osteos” Straight
		Chapter 2: Loving the Living Tissue Called Bone
			Understanding Your Living Skeleton
			Meeting Your Bones
			Modeling and Remodeling
			Building Up and Breaking Down: Your Bones Day by Day
			Your Bones from Birth to Infinity: More Stuff to Know
		Chapter 3: Breaking Down the Risk Factors
			Assessing Your Risk Factors: Which Women Get Osteoporosis?
			Focusing on Lifestyle Factors
			Recognizing Medications That Cause Bone Loss
			How Gastrointestinal Problems Can Affect Your Bones
			Noting Other Diseases Associated with Osteoporosis
			Reducing the Risks of Getting Osteoporosis
		Chapter 4: Men and Kids Get Osteoporosis, Too
			Taking a Closer Look at Who Else Gets Osteoporosis
			Focusing on Osteoporosis in Men
			Why Too Thin Is Bad for Bones — Especially in Teens
			Yes, Little Kids Can Have Osteoporosis
	Part II: Keeping Your Bones Healthy
		Chapter 5: Eating Right for Good Bones
			Getting Enough Calcium in Your Diet
			Examining the Critical Role of Vitamin D
			Nutrients You Probably Never Think About
			Setting Down the Saltshaker
			High Protein or Low Protein?
			Assessing Alcohol in Your Diet
			Decreasing Caffeine: Does it Matter?
			Looking At How Your Weight Affects Your Bones
		Chapter 6: Exercising for Strong Bones
			Starting While You’re Still Young
			Moving Your Bones to Build More Bone
			Developing an Exercise Plan
			Avoiding Injury While Exercising
			Getting Down to the Nitty-Gritty: Choosing an Exercise Routine
	Part III: Diagnosing and Treating Osteoporosis
		Chapter 7: Facing the Consequences of Bones Gone Bad
			Aging and Your Bones
			Facing Fragility Fractures
			Breaking Bones – Different Types of Fractures
		Chapter 8: Finding (and Paying For) a Doctor to Treat Osteoporosis
			I Looked in the Phonebook, But I Couldn’t Find Any Bone-ologists
			Preparing to Meet the Doctor
			Team Tactics: Setting Up a Care Plan with Your Doctor
			Getting the Most Out of Your Insurance Plan
		Chapter 9: Testing Your Bones
			What’s Bone Density Testing, Anyway?
			Deciding When to Have a Bone Density Test
			DXA, SXA, PDXA, and More — Understanding This Alphabet Soup
			Testing Bones in Other Ways
			Interpreting the Results of Your DXA
			Knowing How Often You Need a Bone Density Test
		Chapter 10: Taking Prescription Drugs for Osteoporosis
			Sorting Out the Different Types of Drug Treatment
			Looking at Bisphosphonates for Building Up Bone
			The Estrogen Replacement Controversy
			Calcitonin: An Old Medication Standby
			Building Bone with Teripeptides
			Exploring New Directions in Medication
		Chapter 11: Keeping Bones Strong with Over-the-Counter Supplements
			Why Vitamin D Is a Major Player
			Overdoing Vitamin A
			Confronting the Cacophony of Calcium Supplements
		Chapter 12: Managing Pain from Osteoporosis
			Recognizing the Real Pain of Osteoporosis
			“Oh, My Aching Back!”
			Treating Acute Pain from a Fracture
			Treating Chronic Pain: What to Do When Pain Goes On and On
			Dealing with Pain without Medication
		Chapter 13: Recovering from a Fracture When You Have Osteoporosis
			Checking for Osteoporosis after a Fracture
			Preventing Falls
			Recognizing Breaks and What’s Most Likely to Break
			How Long Does Bone Take to Heal?
			Reducing the Chance of Another Fracture
		Chapter 14: Focusing on the Future of Osteoporosis
			Improving Osteoporosis Prevention
			Looking at Future Technologies for Your Bones
			Finding Future Medications
			Repairing Collapsed Vertebrae: A New Surgical Treatment
			Fighting Osteoporosis on an International Level
			Battling Osteoporosis in the United States
			Ongoing Research Regarding Osteoporosis
	Part IV: The Part of Tens
		Chapter 15: Ten Surprising Sources of Calcium
			Drinking Mineral Water
			Going Beyond Leafy Green Veggies
			Munching on Nuts and Seeds
			Eating Tacos for Dinner
			Sending Out for Pizza
			Taking One Latte to Go!
			Chugging a Little OJ Today
			Adding a Little Molasses
			Indulging on Chocolate Cake
			Powdering with a Different Twist
		Chapter 16: Ten Things You Need to Know about Bones
			Broken Bones Hurt!
			Broken Bones Can Make You Sick — or Worse
			Increasing Calcium Certainly Helps Decrease Fractures
			Milk Is Really Important to Bone
			You Don’t Get a Second Chance at Building Bone
			Today’s Bad Habits Lead to Tomorrow’s Bone Loss
			Getting Shorter Is No Fun at All
			Your Bones Are a Storehouse of Necessary Minerals
			Broken Bones Cost Society a Ton of Money
			Bones Turn Over All the Time
		Chapter 17: Ten Resources for Finding Out More about Osteoporosis
			Staying Up-to-Date with the NOF
			Relying on the NIH
			Utilizing Expert Medical Facilities
			Joining a Support Group
			Chatting Online about Osteoporosis
			Reading Books
			Watching Videos
			Talking with Your Doctor about Osteoporosis
			Visiting Your Favorite Physical Therapist
			Going Online for the Latest Information
		Chapter 18: Top Ten Questions Dr. O’Connor’s Patients Ask about Osteoporosis
			What’s the Best Type of Calcium for Me?
			How Much Calcium Do I Need Each Day?
			I Drink Plenty of Milk. Isn’t That Enough Calcium for My Bones?
			What Exercises Are Best for Preventing Osteoporosis?
			What’s the Difference between Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis?
			My Back Hurts. Is That My Osteoporosis?
			What Else Can I Do to Improve Bone Strength?
			My Family Doc Recommended a Bone Density Study. How Is It Done?
			Which Is Better, Alendronate or Risedronate?
			I’ve Had a Curved Spine Since My Teenage Years. Do I Have Osteoporosis?
		Chapter 19: Ten (Or So) Parenting Tips to Build Strong Bones
			The More You Exercise, the Stronger Your Bones Will Be
			Drinking Milk Daily Builds Big Benefits for Bones
			Shopping Wisely Is Worth the Extra Time
			Don’t Let Lactose Intolerance Rob Your Child of Calcium
			Avoid Carbonated Beverages
			Watch for Signs of Anorexia
			Know Your Family History
			Set an Example about Eating Healthy
			Help Your Teen Avoid Cigarettes and Alcohol
	Appendix: Reviewing Osteoporosis Programs State by State
		District of Columbia
		New Hampshire
		New Jersey
		New Mexico
		New York
		North Carolina
		North Dakota
		Rhode Island
		South Carolina
		South Dakota
		West Virginia
Document Text Contents
Page 1



by Carolyn Riester O’Connor, MD

Sharon Perkins, RN

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Page 2

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A DXA scan is quite accurate, absolutely painless, and requires no
advance preparation. You don’t have to fast, receive any injections
or sedation, take any kind of medication, or even memorize your
multiplication tables before the test. The only preparation is not to
take calcium tablets the day before and the day of the procedure.
You want to avoid the calcium supplements because they can arti-
ficially increase the bone density in your spine if they’re still in
your intestine.

You can keep your clothes on during the examination, as long you
don’t wear anything with metal buttons or zippers. You may be
asked to remove metal jewelry. (The metal can increase bone den-
sity dramatically, which can skew the results.)

You lie on an exam table for a DXA scan, and the test takes only a
short time to complete, less than 15 minutes or so. A DXA scan
does subject you to a dose of radiation, but the amount is small —
less than what you’d receive during a chest X-ray (about 1⁄30th of the
dose). The scan directs X-rays from two different sources (hence
the name “Dual Energy”) at your bone in an alternating pattern.

There is almost no scatter of radiation either, so the room doesn’t
require shielding. You may find DXA machines in your doctor’s
office, which is the most commonly performed type of test.

Settling for SXA
The SXA test (which stands for Single Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry)
measures the bone density in the forearm or heel. The SXA has
several main disadvantages compared to the DXA scan including:

� The part being tested has to be submersed in water.

� The test also measures only bone sites that are far from the
spine and hip. Bone density readings in the heel may not
correlate with bone density readings in your back.

� The SXA test may not be as accurate.

� It takes longer to complete.

Meanwhile, the advantages of the test include the following:

� The equipment is portable.

� The cost is low.

Chapter 9: Testing Your Bones 137

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Pondering PDXA
Peripheral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (PDXA) measures
only peripheral sites, such as the wrist, heel, or finger, and it takes
less time to complete than the SXA. The equipment, like the SXA, is
portable, but the cost is higher than the SXA.

The PDXA delivers a very low radiation dose, and like the DXA, it
has high resolution and a high degree of accuracy.

Looking at the RA
Radiographic Absorptiometry (RA), otherwise known as photoden-
sitometry, has the advantage of using standard X-ray equipment,
but it requires specialized equipment that scans film at high reso-
lution. Then your doctor uses specialized software to calculate
bone volume, bone density, and cortical thickness. It also delivers
a minimal dose of radiation.

On the downside, it measures the strength of bone in only your fin-
gers, and doctors and researchers have yet to determine the corre-
lation of this reading with density elsewhere in the body.

Questioning pQCT
Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) is a very
accurate test done by using a traditional CAT scanner with special-
ized software. This test, which is primarily utilized in research, is
very accurate but expensive, and it results in a higher exposure to
radiation. It also takes longer to obtain the scan.

The pQCT is the only test that can measure cortical bone (the outer
shell) and trabecular bone (the inner honeycomb layer) in the fore-
arm. (See Chapter 2 for the lowdown on bones.)

Testing Bones in Other Ways
The tests previously mentioned in this chapter all use radiation,
although in low amounts, to measure bone mineral density. Three
other tests are available that can look at your bones without radia-
tion: ultrasound and blood and urine tests.

Part III: Diagnosing and Treating Osteoporosis 138

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