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TitleOslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data (Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities)
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LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Foreword
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Objectives and Scope of the Manual
	1. Introduction
		Box 1.1. Structure of the Manual
	2. Factors influencing the scope of the Manual
		2.1. What is measurable?
		2.2. What is it of value to measure?
	3. Scope of the Manual
		3.1. Sector coverage
		3.2. Innovation at the level of the firm
		3.3. Types of innovations
		3.4. Diffusion and the degree of novelty
	4. Providing data on the key issues
		4.1. Innovation activities and expenditures
		4.2. Factors influencing innovation
		4.3. The innovating firm and the impact of innovation
		4.4. Linkages in the innovation process
	5. Some survey issues
		5.1. Approach to data collection
	6. The relationship between the Oslo Manual and other international standards and related concepts
		6.1. Manuals for the measurement of science and technology activities
		6.2. Other standards and classifications
			Box 1.2. Manuals and other guidelines for the measurement of scientific and technological activities
		6.3. Other related concepts and surveys
	7. Final remark
	Notes
Chapter 2. Innovation Theory and Measurement Needs
	1. Introduction
	2. Economics of innovation
	3. A measurement framework
		Figure 2.1. The innovation measurement framework
	4. Sectoral and regional aspects of innovation
		4.1. Innovation in services
		4.2. Innovation in low- and medium-technology industries
		4.3. Innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises
		4.4. Regional innovation
		4.5. Globalisation
	5. Areas for investigation
		5.1. What can be measured?
		5.2. Inputs to innovation
		5.3. Linkages and the role of diffusion
		5.4. The impact of innovation
		5.5. Incentives and obstacles to innovation
		5.6. Demand
		5.7. Other
Chapter 3. Basic Definitions
	1. Introduction
	2. Innovation
	3. Main type of innovation
	4. Distinguishing between types of innovations
		4.1. Distinguishing between product and process innovations
		4.2. Distinguishing between product innovations and marketing innovations
		4.3. Distinguishing between service (product) innovations and marketing innovations
		4.4. Distinguishing between process and marketing innovations
		4.5. Distinguishing between process and organisational innovations
		4.6. Distinguishing between marketing and organisational innovations
	5. Changes which are not considered innovations
		5.1. Ceasing to use a process, a marketing method or an organisation method, or to market a product
		5.2. Simple capital replacement or extension
		5.3. Changes resulting purely from changes in factor prices
		5.4. Customisation
		5.5. Regular seasonal and other cyclical changes
		5.6. Trading of new or significantly improved products
	6. Novelty and diffusion
	7. The innovative firm
	8. Collecting data on innovations
	Notes
Chapter 4. Institutional Classifications
	1. The approach
	2. The units
		2.1. The primary statistical unit
		2.2. The secondary statistical unit
	3. Classification by main economic activity
		Table 4.1. Industrial classification proposed for innovation surveys in the business enterprise sector based on ISIC Rev. 3.1 and NACE Rev. 1.1
	4. Classifications by size
	5. Other classifications
		5.1. Type of institution
		5.2. Other
	Notes
Chapter 5. Linkages in the Innovation Process
	1. Introduction
	2. Inbound diffusion
		2.1. Types of linkages
			Table 5.1. Sources for transfers of knowledge and technology
		2.2. Collecting data on linkages in the innovation process
		2.3. Other linkage indicators
	3. Outbound diffusion
	4. Knowledge management
	Notes
Chapter 6. Measuring Innovation Activities
	1. Introduction
	2. The components and coverage of innovation activities
		2.1. Research and experimental development
		2.2. Activities for product and process innovations
		2.3. Activities for marketing and organisational innovations
		2.4. Design
		2.5. The borderline between R&D and non-R&D innovation activities
		2.6. The development and use of software in innovation activities
	3. Collecting data on innovation activities
		3.1. Qualitative data on innovation activity
		3.2. Quantitative data on innovation activity
		3.3. Other measurement issues
		3.4. Breakdown by type of expenditure
		3.5. Breakdown by source of funds
		3.6. The subject approach versus the object approach
	Notes
Chapter 7. Objectives, Obstacles and Outcomes of Innovation
	1. Introduction
	2. Objectives and effects of innovations
		Table 7.1. Factors relating to the objectives and effects of innovation
	3. Other measures of impacts on enterprise performance
		3.1. Impact on turnover
		3.2. The impact of process innovations on costs and employment
		3.3. The impact of innovation on productivity
	4. Factors hampering innovation activities
		Table 7.2. Factors hampering innovation activities
	5. Questions on the appropriability of innovations
Chapter 8. Survey Procedures
	1. Introduction
	2. Populations
		2.1. The target population
		2.2. The frame population
	3. Survey methods
		3.1. Mandatory or voluntary survey
		3.2. Census or sample survey
		3.3. Domains
		3.4. Sampling techniques
		3.5. Panel data surveys
		3.6. Survey methods and suitable respondents
		3.7. The questionnaire
		3.8. Innovation and R&D surveys
	4. Estimation of results
		4.1. Weighting methods
		4.2. Non-response
	5. Presentation of results
	6. Frequency of data collection
	Notes
References
Annex A. Innovation Surveys in Developing Countries
	Box A.1. "Front office" vs. "back office"
Annex B. Examples of Innovations
Acronyms
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 84

OSLO MANUAL: GUIDELINES FOR COLLECTING AND INTERPRETING INNOVATION DATA

ISBN 92-64-01308-3 – © OECD/EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES 2005 83

283. Some information on acquisition of knowledge and technology can be
obtained from questions on innovation activities (see Chapter 6), although
these questions do not ask about the source of the purchase.

284. In order to detect and better understand the process of clustering or
networking in the field of innovation, additional information can be
obtained by asking for the geographical location of co-operation partners
(local, national, foreign by region or country). Information on the geographic
location of sources (domestic or foreign) may also be useful for open
information sources and acquisition of knowledge and technology.

285. To better interpret results on linkages, questions can be asked about
the enterprise’s status as part of an enterprise group and its position in a value
chain.

2.2.1. Options for designing linkage questions for innovation surveys

286. Types of linkages, reference to types of innovation, use of binary or
ordinal scales and the geographical location of linkages have been identified
as four main factors that innovation surveys can take into consideration in
designing questions on linkages. In order to provide some additional
guidance, three options are outlined below.

287. One option when designing linkage questions for innovation surveys is
to include a combined question that asks whether sources are relevant as
information sources, as sources of purchases of knowledge and technology, or
as co-operation partners. This allows for including all three types of linkages
and eliminates repetition. For this option, it is only feasible to utilise a binary
(yes/no) scale. The question could refer either to product and process
innovation or to all innovation types. However, restricting the question to
product and process innovation (as opposed to all innovation types combined)
would aid when interpreting the data. Supplementary questions could ask
whether enterprises have had linkages (e.g. co-operative partners or
information sources without specifying the specific types) for each type of
innovation. A further question might ask about the geographic location of the
enterprise’s linkages.

288. A second option, which has been used in a number of innovation
surveys, is to include two separate questions on linkages, one on information
sources and their relative importance, and one on co-operation partners, their
relative importance and their location. In using this option, it is important to
distinguish between information sources and co-operation partners (e.g. if no
guidelines are given, any co-operation partner will also be considered an open
information source). Advantages of this approach include the possibility of
asking about the relative importance of each source and the geographic
location of co-operation partners. Drawbacks include the fact that acquisition

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