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TitleOrder Fulfillment
File Size248.3 KB
Total Pages13
Table of Contents
Overall Process
Carrier Appointment
Freight in Transit
Freight Delivered
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Document Text Contents
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The Order Fulfillment Process Model

Marcello La Rosa, Stephan Clemens and Arthur ter Hofstede

30 September 2009. Version: 1.1

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1 Introduction

This document describes the Order Fulfillment process followed by a fictitious company named Genko Oil.
The process is freely inspired by the VICS (Voluntary Inter-industry Commerce Solutions) reference model1

and provides a demonstration of YAWL’s capabilities in modeling complex control-flow, data and resourcing

2 Overall Process

The Genko Oil company features four departments: the Order Management Department (OD), the Supply
Department (SD) including the Warehouse, the Carrier Department (CD) and the Finance Department (FD).
The Order Fulfillment process model is divided into the following phases:

• Ordering,

• Logistics, which includes:

– Carrier Appointment,

– Freight in Transit,

– Freight Delivered,

• Payment.

The Order Fulfillment process model is shown in Figure 1, where each of the above phases is captured by
a composite task. The orders remitted by customers are processed by the Orders Management Department.
In order to keep the example manageable, a number of simplifying assumptions were made. For example we
assume that an order does not lead to more than one shipment. On the other hand orders from different clients
may be combined into a single shipment. A single package only occupies a fraction of a truck and can correspond
to one of a fixed number of sizes.
The process starts with the Ordering task, where purchase orders can be created, modified, approved or rejected.
If an order is rejected or not confirmed in time, the process terminates, otherwise the logistical arrangements
can start in the task Carrier Appointment . This task deals with the preparation of the shipment quote,
with delivery and pick-up arrangements and culminates in the actual pickup of the freight from the Carrier
Department. If the quote is not prepared in time, the whole process terminates and the order is cancelled. If
the freight was picked up, tasks Payment and Freight in Transit are started in parallel. The former deals with
the processing of the payment for the freight and for the shipment. The latter allows the Order department
to issue inquiries after the status of the freight in transit, and handles notifications of the shipment’s progress
from the Carrier Department. This task terminates with the actual delivery of the freight to the customer.
After completion of payment and delivery, task Freight Delivered handles loss or damage claims and requests
for return of merchandise. If no claim or request is lodged within a certain time frame, the process terminates.

Table 1 lists all participants of the Order Fulfillment process with their user identifier, name, positions
and roles. Each participant has default password ‘apple’, whereas the YAWL administrator has user identifier
‘admin’ and password ‘YAWL’. Figure 2 depicts the organizational chart of Genko Oil, where each participant
belongs to one or more positions within a department.

All participants except Don Vito Corleone have the privilege to choose which work item to start, to start
work items concurrently and to reorder work items. Don Carmine Cuneo can also chain work item execution,
while Tom Hagen and Virgil ‘The Turk’ Sollozzo can also view all work items of their organizational group.
Don Vito Corleone can only manage cases in his role of Manager of the Order Fulfillment process.

3 Ordering

The Ordering sub-process starts with the creation of a Purchase Order by the Order Management Department
(see Figure 3). A Purchase Order (PO) needs to be approved by the Supply Department and may then be
subject to a number of modifications, though it requires confirmation within a certain time frame.

The creation of a PO is handled by an OD clerk, who may choose to reallocate the task to another PO
Manager with or without the work performed on it thus far. A PO Manager may also choose to relinquish


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order not


Create Purchase

Purchase Order

Purchase Order

Purchase Order


[order not

Figure 3: The Ordering sub-process

loss of the work performed thus far, and to suspend and resume working on the task. In addition, the system
automatically starts the task for a Supply Officer once they have committed themselves to performing it.

After task Prepare Transportation Quote, based on the total volume of the freight and on the number of
packages, a distinction is made among shipments that require a full truck load (total volume greater than or
equal to 10.000lbs), those that require less than a truck load (total volume less than 10.000lbs and more than
1 package) and those that simply concern a single package (total volume less than 10.000lbs). For shipments
that require a full truck load, Client Liaisons from the OD try to arrange a Pickup appointment and a Delivery
appointment, by specifying the location for pickup/delivery and any specific instructions. The Client Liaisons
associated with these two tasks should be different. It is possible that only one of these or even none of
these appointments is made before a Senior Supply Officer holding a Master’s in Supply Chain and Logistics
Management decides to create a Shipment Information document.

The Shipment Information document is used by the Senior Supply Officer to specify an authorization code
and a consignee number for the shipment number. After the creation of this document, any missing appointments
are made, though this time a Warehouse Officer takes charge of arranging a Pickup appointment and a Supply
Officer takes care of arranging a Delivery appointment, and there are subsequent opportunities to modify them
until a Warehouse Admin Officer produces a Shipment Notice after which the freight can actually be picked
up from the Warehouse. Modifications of Pickup appointments are handled by a Warehouse Officer while
modifications of Delivery appointments are taken care of by a Supply Officer.

When the shipment consists of more than one package but a dedicated truck is not required, a Warehouse
Officer arranges a Pickup appointment and a Client Liaison tries to arrange a Delivery appointment. Afterwards,
a Senior Supply Officer, who holds a Bachelor’s in Supply Chain and Logistics Management, creates a Bill of
Lading, which, similar to the Shipment Information document, requires the specification of an authorization
code and a consignee number. If no Delivery appointment was made prior, a Supply Officer takes care of this


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the freight is
physically picked up

[no delivery

[Truck-Load (TL)] [Single Package (SP)]

[Less than Truck-Load

[else: both]

[no delivery

[no pickup

order preparation
took too long

Prepare Route

Estimate Trailer


Arrange Delivery

Arrange Pickup

Create Bill of

Arrange Delivery


Arrange Pickup

Arrange Delivery

Arrange Pickup

Arrange Delivery

Create Shipment

Arrange Pickup

Arrange Delivery


Modify Pickup

Modify Pickup

Modify Delivery

Modify Delivery

Shipment Notice

Arrange Pickup

Arrange Delivery

Create Carrier



Figure 4: The Carrier Appointment sub-process

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Appointment of sub-process Carrier Appointment are never offered to the same participant during the same
process instance.

Distribution Set Filter The initial distribution set assigned to task Create Purchase Order is filtered such
that this task can be piled to a single participant (runtime filtering). Similarly, a filter on capabilities is applied
to the distribution set assigned to tasks Create Shipment Information Document (which is only offered to
a Senior Supply Officer holding a Master’s in Supply Chain and Logistics Management) and Create Bill of
Lading (which is only offered to a Senior Supply Officer holding a Bachelor’s in Supply Chain and Logistics

Allocation Strategy In sub-process Carrier Appointment, task Estimate Trailer Usage is allocated to the
Shipment Planner who was allocated this task the longest time ago (allocation by time). Similarly, in case of
single package shipments, task Arrange Pickup Appointment is allocated to the Supply Officer who executed
this task the most (allocation by experience).

Privileges Any participant with role of Account Manager has the privilege to chain the execution of work
items assigned to them. In this way an Account Manager can have tasks Issue Debit Adjustment and Issue
Credit Adjustment of sub-process Payment immediately started for them upon completion of task Process
Shipment Payment.

Custom Forms The content of all manual tasks can be rendered to participants either via a dynamically
generated Java Server Faces form, or via a custom JSP form which has been templated with the look&feel of
Genko Oil.

9 Setup

The Order Fulfillment process has been tested to be executed by any YAWL 2.0 engine release (YAWL4Study,
YAWL4Enterprise and YAWLive). This section provides instructions on how to successfully launch a case of
the Order Fulfillment process.

The Order Fulfillment process is available in two specifications: file orderfulfillment.yawl (with dynamic
forms) and file orderfulfillment customforms.yawl (with custom forms). Both files can be found in the directory
[YAWL Installation folder]/misc/examples/orderfulfillment while the custom forms are located in the directory
[YAWL Installation folder]/engine/apache-tomcat-6.0.18/webapps/orderfulfillment.

To launch a case, first, import the organizational data associated with the Order Fulfillment example into
the yawl database:

1. Start the YAWL Engine

2. Open the Control Centre and log in as administrator (id ‘admin’, password ‘YAWL’)

3. Click on Org Data

4. If the YAWL database has already been populated with resources, backup that data by clicking on the
icon “Export Org Data to file” on the top-right corner

5. Click on the icon “Import Org Data from file” on the top-right corner and select the file orderfulfill-
ment.ybkp from the directory [YAWL Installation folder]/misc/examples/orderfulfillment/

A message box at the bottom should appear and indicate that the operation has succeeded by listing the
number of resources that have been imported in terms of participants, groups, capabilities and positions.

Now, a case of the Order Fulfillment process may be launched:

1. Click on Cases in the Control Centre

2. Upload one of the two files in the Control Centre.

3. Select the loaded specification OrderFulfillment

4. Click on Launch Case


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Log out as administrator and log in as an employee of Genko Oil to view and edit the �rst work item. For
example, log in as Fredo Corleone (user id ‘fg’, password ‘apple’) and start the creation of a PO.


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