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Table of Contents
                            On Orbit and Beyond
	Psychological Perspectives on Human
	Preface to the Second Edition
	Preface to the First Edition
	List of Contributors
	List of Figures
	List of Tables
		Psychology and Space Exploration
	Part I: Surviving and Thriving in Extreme Environments
		Chapter 1: Behavioral Health
			1.1 Introduction
			1.2 The Right Stuff
			1.3 Astronaut Selection
			1.4 Psychological Support
			1.5 Conclusion
		Chapter 2: From Earth Analogues to Space: Learning How to Boldly Go
			2.1 Introduction
			2.2 Psychology and Space
			2.3 Critical Psychosocial Issues for Space
			2.4 Terrestrial Analogues for Space
				2.4.1 The Expeditionary Analogue
				2.4.2 Chamber Studies
				2.4.3 The Middle Ground: Capsule Habitats in Extreme Unusual Environments
			2.5 Conclusion
		Chapter 3: Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from the ISS: Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience?
			3.1 Background
				3.1.1 Earth Observation Throughout Human Spaceflight
				3.1.2 Earth Observation in Human Spaceflight Today
				3.1.3 Earth Observation and Behavioral Health in Human Spaceflight
				3.1.4 Objectives
				3.1.5 Hypotheses
			3.2 Methods
				3.2.1 Participants
				3.2.2 Data and Analyses
			3.3 Results
				3.3.1 Comparison of Variables
				3.3.2 Tests of Hypotheses
			3.4 Discussion
				3.4.1 Future Research and Applications
		Chapter 4: The Roles of NASA, U.S. Astronauts, and Their Families in Long-Duration Missions
			4.1 Introduction
			4.2 Methods
			4.3 Findings
				4.3.1 NASA´s Role
				4.3.2 Astronaut´s Role
				4.3.3 Family´s Role
			4.4 Discussion
				4.4.1 Astronaut´s Role
				4.4.2 Family´s Role
	Part II: Interpersonal Dimensions of Space Exploration
		Chapter 5: Human Interactions On-orbit
			5.1 Human Interactions in Isolated and Confined Environments
			5.2 A Study of Intra-crew and Crew-Ground Communication
			5.3 Psychosocial Research On-orbit
				5.3.1 HUman BEhaviour Study (HUBES)
				5.3.2 Studies On-board the Mir and ISS
			5.4 Positive Aspects of Being in Space
			5.5 Lessons Learned: Countermeasures
		Chapter 6: Managing Negative Interactions in Space Crews: The Role of Simulator Research
			6.1 Introduction
			6.2 The Aerospace Psychology Laboratory Simulator Experiment
			6.3 A Call for a Different Type of Thinking
			6.4 Thinking About Equipment
			6.5 Thinking About Spacefarers
		Chapter 7: Gender Composition and Crew Cohesion During Long-Duration Space Missions
			7.1 Introduction
			7.2 Women and Men in Space and Analogous Settings
			7.3 Cohesion
			7.4 Gender Composition and Crew Cohesion
			7.5 Conclusion
		Chapter 8: The Risk for Groupthink During Long-Duration Space Missions: Results from a 105-Day Confinement Study
			8.1 Introduction
			8.2 Personal Values
			8.3 Value Congruence, Cohesion, and Groupthink
			8.4 The Mars 105 Study
			8.5 Value Change over the Course of the Confinement
			8.6 Qualitative Analysis (Post-Mission Interview)
				8.6.1 Subgroups
				8.6.2 Obedience to Instructions
				8.6.3 Relationships with the Outside
			8.7 What Have We Learned?
				8.7.1 Convergence in Values and Intra-Crew Tension
				8.7.2 Values and Interpersonal Compatibility
			8.8 Conclusions
	Part III: Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Space Exploration
		Chapter 9: Psychology and Culture During Long-Duration Space Missions
			9.1 Introduction
			9.2 The Impact of Cultural Issues
			9.3 Personality, Coping, and Adaptation
				9.3.1 Coping Strategies During Short-Duration Versus Long-Duration Space Missions
				9.3.2 What Is ``the Right Stuff´´ Personality?
				9.3.3 Implications for Mission Operations
				9.3.4 Recommendations
			9.4 Behavioral Health and Psychiatry
				9.4.1 Psychiatric Issues in Space
				9.4.2 Asthenia
				9.4.3 Implications for Mission Operations
				9.4.4 Recommendations
			9.5 Cognition and Complex Performance Skills
				9.5.1 Origins of Performance Disturbances in Space
				9.5.2 Effects of Microgravity on Cognitive and Psychomotor Functions
				9.5.3 Maintenance of Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance in Space
				9.5.4 Maintenance of Complex Cognitive and Perceptual-Motor Skills
				9.5.5 Performance and Culture
				9.5.6 Implications for Mission Operations
				9.5.7 Recommendations
			9.6 Interpersonal and Organizational Issues
				9.6.1 Alienation
				9.6.2 The ``Host-Guest´´ Problem
				9.6.3 Minority Status and Organizational Culture
				9.6.4 Psychological Closing, Autonomization, and Displacement
				9.6.5 Crew Autonomy
				9.6.6 Implications for Mission Operations
				9.6.7 Recommendations
		Chapter 10: Flying with Strangers: Postmission Reflections of Multinational Space Crews
			10.1 Nationalistic Embodiments of a Universal Human Drive
			10.2 Guest Rooms in Space
			10.3 ``My House,´´ or Joint Tenancy?
				10.3.1 Anecdotal Evidence
				10.3.2 Self-Report Studies
			10.4 The Current Study: Thematic Content Analysis
				10.4.1 Method
				10.4.2 Results
			10.5 Discussion
				10.5.1 Flying with Strangers: The Influence of Minority-Majority Status
				10.5.2 Status and Nationality
				10.5.3 Status and Flight Duration
				10.5.4 Status and Host Nationality
			10.6 Conclusion
			10.7 Postscript
		Chapter 11: Cross-Cultural and Spaceflight Psychology: Arenas for Synergistic Research
			11.1 Space Exploration and Culturally Shaped Behavior: Anticipations and Preparations
			11.2 The Domain of Cross-Cultural Psychology: Cultural Characteristics and Intercultural Interaction
				11.2.1 Cultural Dimensions
				11.2.2 Values
				11.2.3 Social Axioms
			11.3 The Culture Assimilator
			11.4 Expanding the Range of Cultures
			11.5 Concluding Comments
	Part IV: Autonomy in Future Space Missions
		Chapter 12: High Versus Low Crewmember Autonomy in Space Simulation Environments
			12.1 Background
			12.2 NEEMO 12 and 13
			12.3 HMP 2008
			12.4 Mars500 105-Day Study
			12.5 Conclusions
		Chapter 13: Effects of Autonomous Mission Management on Crew Performance, Behavior, and Physiology: Insights from Ground-Based Experiments
			13.1 Introduction
			13.2 Method
				13.2.1 Participants
				13.2.2 Planetary Exploration Simulation
				13.2.3 Experimental Manipulations
				13.2.4 Performance, Behavioral, and Physiological Measures
				13.2.5 Statistical Analysis
			13.3 Results
				13.3.1 Experiment 1
				13.3.2 Experiment 2
			13.4 Discussion
		Chapter 14: Near-Term Extended Solar System Exploration
			14.1 Introduction
			14.2 Why Human Spaceflight Beyond Orbit May Soon Be Possible
			14.3 The VASIMR Rocket Motor
			14.4 The Use of Nuclear Power in Space
			14.5 Solving the Problem of Physical Deterioration from Weightlessness
				14.5.1 Artificial Gravity
				14.5.2 Preventive Treatment for Bone Deterioration
			14.6 Now Is the Time to Begin Planning Human Exploration of the Solar System
			14.7 Mind-Body Interaction in Space Psychology
			14.8 Performance
			14.9 The Autonomic Nervous System
			14.10 Where to Next for Human Spaceflight Beyond Earth Orbit?
			14.11 Conclusion
		Chapter 15: From Earth´s Orbit to the Outer Planets and Beyond: Psychological Issues in Space
			15.1 Introduction
			15.2 Psychological Issues During Long-Duration Near-Earth Space Missions: What Do We Know?
			15.3 Missions to Mars
			15.4 Missions to the Outer Planets
			15.5 Interstellar Missions
			15.6 Conclusions
		From the Past to the Future
	About the Editor
Document Text Contents
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Published jointly by Microcosm Press and Springer

The Space Technology Library Editorial Board

Managing Editor: James R. Wertz, Microcosm, Inc., El Segundo, CA, USA;

Editorial Board: Val A. Chobotov, Consultant on Space Hazards, Aerospace Corporation, Los
Angeles, CA, USA;
Michael L. DeLorenzo, Permanent Professor and Head, Dept. of Astronautics,
U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Spring, CO, USA;
Roland Doré, Professor and Director, International Space University, Strasbourg,
Robert B. Giffen, Professor Emeritus, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Spring,
Gwynne Gurevich, Space Exploration Technologies, Hawthorne, CA, USA;
Wiley J. Larson, Professor, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Spring, CO, USA;

Tom Logsdon, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Space Division, Rockwell
International, Downey, CA, USA;

F. Landis Markley, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, MD, USA;

Robert G. Melton, Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering, Pennsylvania
State University, University Park, PA, USA;
Keiken Ninomiya, Professor, Institute of Space & Astronautical Science,
Sagamihara, Japan;
Jehangir J. Pocha, Letchworth, Herts, UK;

Frank J. Redd, Professor and Chair, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept., Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA;

Rex W. Ridenoure, Jet Microcosm, Inc., Torrance, CA, USA;

Malcolm D. Shuster, Professor of Aerospace Engineering, Mechanics and
Engineering Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA;

Gael Squibb, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology,
Pasadena, CA, USA;
Martin Sweeting, Professor of Satellite Engineering, University of Surrey,
Guildford, UK

For further volumes:

Page 173

8.1 Introduction

Future human space missions to Mars raise signi�cant challenges with regard to

maintenance of the health, performance and safety of crew members (Manzey

2003). Such missions will not be comparable to any other undertaking humans

have ever attempted because of the long distance of travel, the duration of perma-

nent living under dependence of automated life-support systems, and the lack of

short-term rescue possibilities in case of emergencies. Due to these factors and the

restricted possibilities of psychological support from Earth during the stay in

Martian orbit or on Martian surface, crew autonomy will inevitably be higher

than ever before. The lack of a visual link to Earth is likely to add to the feelings

of isolation and autonomy (Kanas and Manzey 2008). A major challenge for

mission planning is to ensure the ability of the crew to function ef�ciently and

safely under these conditions. Long-duration space missions are a challenge for

interpersonal relationships and feelings of coherence of crewmembers. Problems in

this area can take on two forms. On the one hand, interpersonal tensions can become

so large that the group disintegrates and the mission�s aim is jeopardized. On the

other hand, the coherence can become so strong that crewmembers lose their

independence and critical evaluation skills.

An unequivocal recommendation from experts in space psychology is that

emphasizing interpersonal compatibility in crew composition is important for a

successful completion of any mission. While historically, research attention has

been directed towards the potential impact of personality differences and comple-

mentarities on how crew members relate to each other, the potential impact of

values have remained unexplored. On the basis of past theoretical and empirical

research on psychological need ful�lment and value congruence in organisations in

urban settings (Cable and Edwards 2004), it has been suggested that constellations

of individuals should be avoided whose values, needs and beliefs are competitive or

incongruent. Yet the empirical basis for this assumption in isolated and con�ned

settings is weak as longitudinal studies that empirically relate similarities in indi-

vidual values to crew cohesion and tension are missing. Studies on whether

con�ned individuals over time develop more homogeneity in values and thus

increasingly tend to share their views and perspectives also seem to be lacking.

We addressed these issues during a 105-day con�nement study in which a multina-

tional crew simulated a number of scenarios related to launch, the outbound and

return journey to Mars, and transfer to and from the Martian surface. This chapter

will take a closer look at �ndings from this study.

8.2 Personal Values

We adopted the theory developed by Schwartz and Bilsky (1990) which de�nes

values as desirable, trans-situational motivational goals of varying importance, and

which serves as guidelines for action. The model derives ten types of values:

136 G.M. Sandal et al.

Page 174

Self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, power, security, conformity,

tradition, benevolence, and universalism. The theory has been tested in more than

200 samples from over 60 countries. In the vast majority of samples, both the

distinctiveness of the ten values and the structure of their relations have been

verified. The set of ten values has been used to explain a wide variety of attitudes,

behaviours, and subjective states across many nations. Being closely linked to

motivation, values guide attention and action to intrinsically rewarding social,

intellectual, and emotional opportunities (Schwartz 2006a). As values serve as

standards for judging the behaviour of self and others, they are likely to play an

important role in tension between crewmembers and for subgroup formation during

human space missions. This idea is supported by a large body of evidence within

the field of social psychology showing that attitudinal similarity is a powerful

determinant of interpersonal attraction.

The relative stability of values across context and time demonstrated in large

samples makes them useful psychological constructs. Nonetheless, to some degree

individual value systems have been found to be affected by experiences from

spaceflights (Suedfeld 2006) and polar expeditions (Leon et al. 2011). Suedfeld

(2006) conducted a pilot study, involving 12 astronauts, to provide a quantitative

content analysis of how the completion of space missions affected their personal

values. He found that in the period after the space experience, Achievement

decreased in importance, as did Enjoyment and Benevolence; in contrast, Tran-

scendence became by far the dominant value. Transcendence is an aspect of

Universalism in the value system of Schwartz. Similar changes were found in

content analyses of the autobiographies of four early astronauts (Suedfeld 2004).

Leon and her colleagues (2011) demonstrated change in value hierarchies among

participants in a two-man North-Pole expedition team. These studies point to the

relevance of values for understanding the psychological reactions to life in extreme


8.3 Value Congruence, Cohesion, and Groupthink

Extensive studies of humans in a variety of organizational settings and national

cultures indicate that values relate to preferences in areas including leadership,

appropriate gender relationships, structuring of tasks, sources for work motivation,

and self-reliance (Hofstede 2001). Anecdotal (Burrough 1998) and empirical

(Santy and Holland 1993; Lozano et al. 1996) evidence underscore that differences

in these areas have been a source of disagreements that have strained the ability of

international space crews to mount an optimal, unified performance. Person-job fit,
the match between the technical skills, knowledge, and abilities of a person and

work tasks inherent in the job, has received extensive attention in astronaut selec-

tion since the early days of human spacefight. With longer duration missions and

increasingly heterogeneous crews, the importance of fit between crewmembers and

their teammates become more salient. Person-group fit refers to the compatibility

8 The Risk for Groupthink During Long-Duration Space Missions 137

Page 346

Stressors, 31, 188

Subgroups, 174

Subjective culture, 219

Subjectivization of time, 37

Submarines, 31, 40

Submersible habitats, 40

Substitutes, 29

Suedfeld, P., xxx, xxxvii, 31, 33, 102, 213

Suicidal threat, 166, 276, 289

Sunnyvale Conference, 6

Superordinate goals, 213


role of the leader, 95, 97, 100, 233, 241,

287, 289

Surprise presents, 166

Suspended animation, 292, 294

Sympathetic nervous system, 252, 277


Tahiti, 36

Taikonauts, 207, 222–224

Task, 97, 99, 103

role of the leader, 95, 97, 233, 241, 287, 289

TCA. See Thematic Content Analysis

building, 179

coordination, 30

dynamics, 45

effectiveness, 31

function, 45

processes, 31

Team-based work, 262

Teleconferencing, 103

Telemedicine, 161

Temporal patterns, 57

Tension, 176

Tereshkova, V., 123, 126

Terra Nova Expedition, 37

Terrestrial analogues, 25

Territorial behavior, 174

Test beds, 44

Testosterone, 252

Thagard, N., 189, 190

Thematic Content Analysis (TCA), 188,

192, 193

Third-quarter effect, 52, 57, 63, 94, 97, 98, 157,

174, 233, 287

Three Mile Island, xxx

Tiangong 1, xxxiv

Time, 94, 233

delays, 289, 290

effects, 97, 98

Tito, D., 108

Total mood disturbance, 239–241

Tourism, 247

Training, 45, 160, 165, 172, 179, 289

Triandis, H.C., 219

Trust, 127

Tsiolkovsky, K., 26

Tuna can, 39

Twitter, 18

Two-way communication times, 290, 291

Type A, 34


Uncertainty avoidance, 216, 217

Underwater capsules, 30

United Kingdom, 43

United States (U.S), 40, 43

United States Exploring Expedition, 36

Universalism, 205

University of Hawai’i, 35

University of North Carolina

at Wilmington, 40

U.S. Marine Corps, 43

U.S. Virgin Islands, 40

Utah, 44


Value, 204, 215, 217, 224

change, 199

difference between Russians and

Americans, 197

hierarchies, 195, 197

achievement, 197

results, 197

spirituality, 197

van de Vijver, F.J.R., xxxvi

VASIMR rocket motor

hydrogen, 269

Mars power engines, 270

NASA, 269–271

plasma, 269, 271

Venus, 36

Verne, J., 26, 186

Vestibular system, 169

Virgin Galactic, 108

Vision for Space Exploration, The, 55, 124
Visiting crew, 175

Visual link to Earth, 136

Voas, R., 5, 13

Voice analysis, 160, 165

Voice frequency analysis, 179

von Braun, W., 4, 26

316 Index

Page 347

Vostok 6, 126
Voyager 2, 290, 291


Weekends, 51, 56, 59, 61

Weick, K.E., 9

Weightlessness, 269, 273–275

Weitekamp, M.A., xxxi

Well-being, 52, 55–57, 66, 67

Wells, H.G., 26

WES. See Work Environment Scale
White, F., 10

Whitson, P., xxxiv, 126

Wichman, H., xxxvi, xxxiv

Wilk, K.E., xxxvii, 213

Williams, J., 65

Williams, S., xxxiv

Windows-Spaceflight cognitive assessment

tool (WinScat), 173

Winter-over syndrome, 41

Wolf, D., 190

Woman in Space program, 126

Women in Combat Task Force Study

Group, 131

Wood, J., 6

Woolford, B., xxxviii

Work Environment Scale (WES), 96, 97,

232–235, 286

Working Group on Psychiatric and

Psychological Selection of

Astronauts, 15

Workload, 56, 65

Work pressure, 177, 233, 234, 237–239, 241,

242, 287

Wouters, F., 41

Wrangel Island, 37

Wright Air Development Center, 13

Wright brothers, 26

Wyle Laboratories, 18


Yerkes-Dodson Law, 276, 277


Zedekar, R., 13

Zubek, J.P., 38

Zubrin, R., 271, 273, 274

Index 317

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