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TitleNuclear Energy Synergetics: An Introduction to Conceptual Models of Integrated Nuclear Energy Systems
Author
TagsNuclear Physics
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages232
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Nuclear
Energy

Synergetics
AN INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPTUAL MODELS

OF INTEGRATED NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

Page 2

Nuclear
Energy

Synergetics
AN INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPTUAL MODELS

OF INTEGRATED NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

A. A. Harms
McMaster University

Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

and
M. Heindler

Technical University of Graz
Graz, Austria

PLENUM PRESS. NEW YORK AND LONDON

Page 116

114
Chapter Six

Fusile
Fuel

Recycle

Fusile Fuel
Transfer ~
CT,FCR '\

CFi,DTR
Fissile Fuel
Transfer

....--l-----':'-"...,

Fission
Reactor

Ra,Fi

Fissile
Fuel

Recycle

FIGURE 6.2. Symbolic representation of a fusion-fission symbiont illustrating
fuel recycle and fuel transfer.

where the diagonal matrix elements describe the fuel flows within the
individual reactors and the off-diagonal elements account for the fuel
transfers between the components. This equation can be compactly writ-
ten as

~N=CR
dt

(6.14)

where C may be interpreted as a fuel coupling matrix linking the symbiont
inventory vector N to the symbiont reaction rate vector R.

Eq. (6.14) describes the comprehensive nuclear fuel coupling pos-
sible for a symbiont: both nuclear reactors breed fissile and fusile fuel
for transfer and recycle. It may be noted that all of the fuel-coupling
combinations need not be considered in order to maintain fuel self-
sufficient operation. For example, it might be judged that essential tritium
breeding in the fission reactor need not be required, in which case
CT,FCR = O. On the other hand, it might be feasible to consider a fission
reactor with a low conversion ratio and then require that most of the
fissile fuel be supplied by breeding in the fusion blanket.

To enumerate these and other lower-order symbionts, we adopt the
notation suggested in Figure 6.2. Here, each of the two coupled reactors
is symbolically characterized by the principal reaction rates and the two
associated nuclear fuel conversion ratios. With a circle identifying the
fusion reactor and a square representing the fission reactor, the various
potentially feasible symbionts are distinguished by the presence or
absence of the recycle and transfer fuel linkages. A number of isotopically
feasible symbionts together with the coupling matrices are illustrated in
Figure 6.3. For illustrative and comparative purposes, example No.1
represents the conventional stand-alone fusion and fission reactors.

Page 117

No.1 No.4

(9 Q) C""CR' 0 ~ ® G ., C".DTR) o CT,DTR- t CT,FCR -1
No.2 No.5

M tA'FCR" CA'DTR) ~ GR"CR" CA'DTR) o CT,DTR-1 CT,FCR -1
No.3 No.6

(S5Q) ~A"CR" 0 J ~ G""C'-' C';.DTR ) CT,FCR CT,DTR-1 CT,FCR CT,DTR-1
FIGURE 6.3. Listing of several distinct D-T symbionts illustrating the fuel
linkages and the associated coupling matrix.

We emphasize that only in the case of a perfectly closed equilibrium
fuel cycle may the in situ breeding of fissile nuclei in the fission reactor
core and the external recycle of fissile fuel contained in fuel elements
discharged from the fission reactor be treated identically as suggested by
the symbolism employed in Figure 6.2.

6.3. FUEL SELF-SUFFICIENCY

The specification of system parameters of the D-T symbiont can be
undertaken at several levels and is dictated by the imposed operational
conditions. Our initial intent is to determine the relationships which must
hold among the several system parameters under conditions of complete
fuel self-sufficiency. That is, following the initial fuel loading of both
reactors, the symbiont breeds exactly the amount of fissile and fusile
nuclear fuel which it consumes. The implicit assumption is that fuel-cycle
equilibrium conditions have been attained.

From a comparison of the graphical isotope flow displayed in Figure
6.1 and the associated isotope rate equations, Eqs. (6.10) and (6.12), we
note that complete fuel self-sufficiency is specified by a constant fuel
inventory vector N, thus giving

d d
-NT=-NF"=O dt dt 1

(6.15)

115
The (D-T) Fusion-

Fission Symbiont

Page 231

Accelerator, 9-12, 63-65, 87, 201
Actinides, 50
Activation products, 50, 53-55
Advanced fusion fuels, 183-186

Back-end fuel cycle, 50-58, 100
Beam power, 71, 74, 75, 192
Bibliography, 209-213
Binding energy, 9, 13
Blanket, 10-15, 77, 93, 128, 151, 155,

202
Blanket power, 118-124
Branching, 18, 181-183
Breeder reactor, 4, 43, 200-202
Breeding, 4-7, 10-12, 64-68, 76-81,

89-96, 109-116, 152-173, 194,
201

Breeding gain (ratio), 129-132, 161-
168,173

Burner reactor, 43, 44, 203

Cascade process, 8
CAT-D, 25, 26, 181-183
Capture-to-fission ratio, 19
Conversion ratio, 44, 66, 100, 101, 112
Converter reactor, 4, 43, 201, 203
Cross section, 27, 30-35, 40, 41, 57,

216-221
Coulomb barrier, 32
Coupling matrix, 114, 115

Index

D-D fusion, 5, 25, 34, 44, 48, 179-183
D-3He parent-satellite, 49, 187-194
Direct conversion, 49
Doppler broadening, 29, 219
Doubling time, 103, 172
Driven thermonuclear reactor, 10
D-T fusion, 5, 24, 110, 152

Energy
characterization, 229-235
factory, 165, 202
linkage, 10, 65, 121, 173
multiplication, 12, 23, 71, 75, 76,

119,122,174
Enrichment, 58, 76-80
Equivalent fuel, 85, 223-227
Evaporation process, 8
EXT -D, 181-183

Fissile fuel trajectory, 88-105,171-173
Fission

chain, 7, 41, 185
products, 3, 15, 50-55
reaction, 3, 10-12, 37, 38

Fission-fusion hybrid, 12,48,151-175
Fission-spallation hybrid, 46
Fission-spallation symbiont, 45-46,

63-82
Front-end fuel cycle, see: Breeding 237

Page 232

238
Index

Fuel
cycle, 7, 51, 100, 155
factory, 165, 202
rejuvenation, 55-58, 205
residence time, 92, 101, 131, 147
trajectory, 85-105, 127-149, 169-

173
Fuel breeding, see: Breeding
Fusion

cycle, 25, 26, 179-183, 186
energy, 26, 182-185
reaction, 5, 25, 26, 179-186

Fusion-fission hybrid, 151-176
Fusion-fission symbiont, 47-49, 109-

125

Historical development, 9~12
Hybrid breeder, 151-168

Incineration, 51-55, 58
In situ breeding, 15, 46, 55-58, 98, 101
Inventory, 85-105, 127-149, 169-173
Ion ratio, 188-189
Ion temperature, 35
Isotope linkage, 7, 10-13, 182

Lag time, 101
Li-6 hybrid, 157-162
Li-7 hybrid, 162-165
Load factor, 90

Mass-energy sustainability, 200-202
Maxwellian distribution, 29, 218
Minimum inventory, 104

Natural-Li hybrid, 165-166
Neutron

catalysis, 200
fiuA, 28, 219
multiplication, 8, 14, 20, 26-27, 33-

34
spectrum, 14, 20
yield, 18-26

Nuclear energy continuum, 202-204
Nuclear symbiosis, 45-50
Nuclear systematics, 3-6

Once-through fuel cycle, 100

Power, see: Energy
Power ratio, 73, 74
Power multiplication, 119-122, 174-

175, 190
See a/50: Energy, multiplication

Proton
cure nt, 66, 75
transmutation, 54

PURE-D, 25, 181-183

Radioactive decay, 52-54
Reaction characterization, 27-29, 37-

41,215-221
Reaction energy, 18, 23, 26, 183-185
Reaction linkage, 6-12, 41-52,182,186
Reaction parameter, 29, 35, 181, 218
Reactor representation, 42-45
Recycle fraction, 156
Refueling interval, 92
Rejuvenation, 55-58
Residence time, 92, 95, 99, 169, 171

Satellite reactors, 49, 186-195
SCAT-D, 25, 181-183, 187
Self-sufficiency, 44, 67-68, 73-74, 79-

80, 97, 115-118, 157-160
Spallation, 20-24, 40, 50, 52
Spallation-fission hybrid, 46
Spallation-fission symbiont, 10, 46,

63-82,191
Stockpile, see: Inventory
Synergetic breeder, 14
Syntonic energy park, 15

Thorium cycle, 10
T -hybrid, 156, 166-171
Trajectories, 85-105, 127-149, 169-

173
Transmutation, 4, 5, 14, 15, 51-55,

77,205
Tritium trajectory, 135-145, 168-171

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