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TitleNLP Workbook: A Practical Guide to Achieving the Results You Want
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.0 MB
Total Pages377
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
Contents
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Chapter 1 What is NLP?
Chapter 2 Outcomes
Chapter 3 Learning
Chapter 4 Relationship
Chapter 5 The Senses
Chapter 6 Emotional State
Chapter 7 Inside the Mind
Chapter 8 Strategies
Chapter 9 Language
Chapter 10 The Meta Model
Chapter 11 The Milton Model
Chapter 12 Metaphor
Chapter 13 Writing
Chapter 14 Understanding
Chapter 15 Framing
Chapter 16 Putting It All Together
Appendices:
	NLP Patterns
	The Principal Influences on NLP Development
Bibliography
Glossary
NLP Resources
Training and Consultancy
Index
Keep Reading
About the Author
Also by the Author
Copyright
About the Publisher
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 188

Go for a counter example.
‘Everyone is laughing at me.’ ‘You mean is laughing at you?
That can’t be right. I’m not and neither is that man sitting over there.’
‘I always make a mess of it.’ ‘What, every single time? There has never
ever been a time when you didn’t make a mess of it?’

One counter example should be enough to discredit the generalization.
However, sometimes there really is no counter example that the person can
think of or one counter example is not enough for them.

Exaggerate.
‘You always do

that.’
‘You’re right! Always. There has never been a time, right back to when
you first met me, when I did not. I do it with everybody. And what’s
more I do it on purpose. I aim to be entirely predictable and I only do it
to annoy. . .’

The essence of exaggeration is to take the pattern to its limit and make it
ridiculous so that the speaker is forced to deny some aspect of it. Because it
is a generalization, if they deny some aspect, then it loses its validity.

Isolate and query the universal. This is the safest way to challenge.
ever happens around here.’ ‘Nothing? At all? Ever?’

Judgements can be classified as generalizations too when they are stated as a
universal rule, for example: ‘Musicians have lax morals.’
‘Men are aggressive.’
‘Women like to cook.’

Question these in the same way.

men? Do you really mean men? Have you met every single person on
this planet with a Y chromosome?’

Page 189

Asking for or giving a counter example.
Exaggerating.
Isolating and querying the universal.

Paradoxically, generalizations narrow your map of the world and set limits
because they limit your thinking to the one or two examples that you generalize
from and you miss all the other rich possibilities.

Generalization may seem an abstract linguistic distinction, but types of
generalization have been shown to have a profound effect on health in studies
carried out by Doctor Martin Seligman and colleagues at the University of
Pennsylvania. Some people generalize in a pessimistic way to explain what
happens to them. Seligman called this ‘learned helplessness’. People who use
this style assume misfortune is their fault. They delete external factors and
generalize by taking all of the responsibility. Furthermore, they assume it will
not change. They generalize from one bad event to thinking that life will always
be that way. They also generalize by thinking that the misfortune will affect
everything they do. This pessimistic generalization pattern leads to a feeling of
general helplessness and carries with it an increased risk of illness.

* Peterson, C., Seligman, M., and Valliant, G., ‘Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical
illness: a thirty-five year longitudinal study’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55 (1988), 23–
7.

In a study over 35 years at Harvard,* the health of a pessimistic group
compared with a control group showed a marked deterioration, which was
particularly noticeable between the ages of 40 to 45. Both groups started healthy
and fit and no other factor could account for this difference. The link was
statistically stronger than that between smoking and lung cancer, which is
generally assumed to be proven beyond reasonable doubt.

Generalization can damage your health!

Modal operators are a class of generalization that set rules. There are two main
kinds of modal operators in the Meta Model: modal operators of possibility and
modal operators of necessity.

Page 376

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© Joseph O’Connor 2001

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Page 377

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