Download NCERT Book Psychology XII PDF

TitleNCERT Book Psychology XII
File Size1.2 MB
Total Pages211
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chap 8 - Psychology and Life
Chap 9 - Developing Psychological Skills
Guidelines for Practicals
Document Text Contents
Page 1


Foreword iii

Preface v

Chapter 1

Variations in Psychological Attributes 1

Chapter 2

Self and Personality 23

Chapter 3

Meeting Life Challenges 50

Chapter 4

Psychological Disorders 69

Chapter 5

Therapeutic Approaches 89

Chapter 6

Attitude and Social Cognition 106

Chapter 7

Social Influence and Group Processes 129

Chapter 8

Psychology and Life 152

Chapter 9

Developing Psychological Skills 177

Guidelines for Practicals in Psychology 196

Glossary 200

Suggested Readings 209

/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 1.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 2.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 3.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 4.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 5.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 6.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chapter 7.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chap 8 - Psychology and Life.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Chap 9 - Developing Psychological Skills.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Guidelines for Practicals.pdf
/book_publishing/NEW BOOK 2007/class12/psychology/Glossary.pdf

Page 2


Individual Differences in Human Functioning
Assessment of Psychological Attributes
Theories of Intelligence

Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-
successive Model of Intelligence

Individual Differences in Intelligence
Variations of Intelligence
Some Misuses of Intelligence Tests (Box 1.1)

Culture and Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence

Characteristics of Emotionally Intelligent
Persons (Box 1.2)

Special Abilities
Aptitude : Nature and Measurement



Key Terms
Review Questions
Project Ideas
Pedagogical Hints

After reading this chapter, you would be able to:
understand psychological attributes on which people differ from each other,
learn about different methods that are used to assess psychological attributes,
explain what constitutes intelligent behaviour,
learn how psychologists assess intelligence to identify mentally challenged
and gifted individuals,
understand how intelligence has different meaning in different cultures, and
understand the difference between intelligence and aptitude.

Page 105


Review Questions
1. Describe the nature and scope of psychotherapy. Highlight the importance of

therapeutic relationship in psychotherapy.
2. What are the different types of psychotherapy? On what basis are they classified?
3. A therapist asks the client to reveal all her/his thoughts including early childhood

experiences. Describe the technique and type of therapy being used.
4. Discuss the various techniques used in behaviour therapy.
5. Explain with the help of an example how cognitive distortions take place.
6. Which therapy encourages the client to seek personal growth and actualise their

potential? Write about the therapies which are based on this principle.

Key Terms
Alternative therapy, Behaviour therapy, Biomedical therapy, Client-centred therapy, Cognitive behaviour
therapy, Empathy, Gestalt therapy, Humanistic therapy, Psycho dynamic therapy, Psychotherapy,
Rehabilitation, Resistance, Self-actualisation, Therapeutic alliance, Transference, Unconditional positive

• Psychotherapy is a treatment for the healing of psychological distress. It is not a
homogenous treatment method. There are about 400 different types of psychotherapy.

• Psychoanalysis, behavioural, cognitive and humanistic-existential are the important
systems of psychotherapy. There are many schools within each of the above systems.

• The important components of psychotherapy are the clinical formulation, i.e. statement
of the client’s problem and treatment in the framework of a particular therapy.

• Therapeutic alliance is the relation between the therapist and the client in which the
client has trust in the therapist and the therapist has empathy for the client.

• The predominant mode of psychotherapy for adults with psychological distress is
individual psychotherapy. The therapist requires to be professionally trained before
embarking on the journey of psychotherapy.

• Alternative therapies such as some yogic and meditative practices have been found
to be effective in treating certain psychological disorders.

• Rehabilitation of the mentally ill is necessary to improve their quality of life once their
active symptoms are reduced.

an improvement in the quality of life. Many
patients suffer from negative symptoms
such as disinterest and lack of motivation
to do work or to interact with people.
Rehabilitation is required to help such
patients become self-sufficient. The aim of
rehabilitation is to empower the patient to
become a productive member of society to
the extent possible. In rehabilitation, the
patients are given occupational therapy,
social skills training, and vocational
therapy. In occupational therapy, the
patients are taught skills such as candle

making, paper bag making and weaving to
help them to form a work discipline. Social
skills training helps the patients to develop
interpersonal skills through role play,
imitation and instruction. The objective is
to teach the patient to function in a social
group. Cognitive retraining is given to
improve the basic cognitive functions of
attention, memory and executive functions.
After the patient improves sufficiently,
vocational training is given wherein the
patient is helped to gain skills necessary
to undertake productive employment.

Page 106

Chapter 5 • Therapeutic Approaches


Pedagogical Hints
1. Students could be asked to connect

the dif ferent therapeutic
approaches to some of the theories
of personality they have studied in
Chapter 2 on Self and Personality.

2. Role-play and dramatisation of
certain student-related behavioural
issues, such as break-up of
relationship with a friend would
evoke interest among the students
and also emphasise the application
of psychology.

3. As therapy is a highly skilled
process requiring professional
training, students should be
refrained from treating it in a
frivolous manner.

4. Any activity/discussion, which may
have a serious impact on the psyche
of the students, should be properly
transacted in the presence of the


• In school at times you get good points (or gold points or stars) when you do well and
bad or black points when you do something wrong. This is an example of a token
system. With the help of your classmates make a list of all those school and classroom
activities for which you are rewarded or receive praise from your teacher or appreciation
from your friends. Also make a list of all those activities for which your teacher scolds
you or your classmates get angry with you.

• Describe a person in your past or present who has consistently demonstrated
unconditional positive regard towards you. What effect, if any, did (or does) this have
on you? Explain. Gather the same information from more friends and prepare a report.

7. What are the factors that contribute to healing in psychotherapy? Enumerate some
of the alternative therapies.

8. What are the techniques used in the rehabilitation of the mentally ill?
9. How would a social learning theorist account for a phobic fear of lizards/cockroaches?

How would a psychoanalyst account for the same phobia?
10. Should Electro-convulsive Therapy (ECT) be used in the treatment of mental disorders?
11. What kind of problems is cognitive behaviour therapy best suited for?

Page 210


For developing further understanding on the topics, you may like
to read the following books

• Baron, R.A. 2001/Indian reprint 2002. Psychology (5th ed.). Allyn &

• Bellack, A.S., & Hersen, M. 1998. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology.

Elsevier. London.

• Carson, R.C., Butcher, J.N., & Mineka, S. 2004. Abnormal Psychology

and Modern Life. Pearson Education. Delhi.

• Davis, S.F., & Palladino, J.H. 1997. Psychology. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

• Davison, G.C. 1998. Abnormal Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

• Gerow, J.R. 1997. Psychology : An Introduction. Addison Wesley
Longman, Inc.

• Gleitman, H. 1996. Basic Psychology. W.W. Norton & Company.

• Sadock, B.J., & Sadock, V.A. (Eds.) 2004. Kaplan & Sadock’s

Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (8th ed., Vol. II). Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins.

• Lahey, B.B. 1998. Psychology : An Introduction. Tata McGraw-Hill.

• Malim, T., & Birch, A. 1998. Introductory Psychology. Macmillan
Press Ltd.

• McMahon, J.W., McMahon, F.B., & Romano, T. 1995. Psychology
and You. West Publishing Company.

• Weiten, W. 2001. Psychology : Themes and Variations. Thomson
Learning, Inc. Wadsworth.

• Zimbardo, P.G., & Weber, A.L. 1997. Psychology. Longman. New York.

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