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TitleNaqada III
TagsAncient Egypt Bronze Age Iron Age African Civilizations 2nd Millennium Bc
File Size550.0 KB
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                            Naqada III
	Further reading
	External links
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Page 1

Naqada III 1

Naqada III

The Narmer Palette, thought to mark the
unification of Upper and Lower Egypt; note the
images of Hathor or Bat at the top, as well as the
serpopards, forming the central intertwined image

Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient
Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC[1]. It
is the period during which the process of state formation, which had
begun to take place in Naqada II, became highly visible, with named
kings heading powerful polities. Naqada III is often referred to as
Dynasty 0 or Protodynastic Period[1] to reflect the presence of kings
at the head of influential states, although, in fact, the kings involved
would not have been a part of a dynasty. They would more probably
have been completely unrelated and very possibly in competition with
each other. Kings' names are inscribed in the form of serekhs on a
variety of surfaces including pottery and tombs.

The Protodynastic Period in ancient Egypt was characterised by an
ongoing process of political unification, culminating in the formation
of a single state to begin the Early Dynastic Period. Furthermore, it is
during this time that the Egyptian language was first recorded in
hieroglyphs. There is also strong archaeological evidence of Egyptian
settlements in southern Canaan during the Protodynastic Period, which
are regarded as colonies or trading entrepôts.

State formation began during this era and perhaps even earlier. Various
small city-states arose along the Nile. Centuries of conquest then
reduced Upper Egypt to three major states: Thinis, Naqada, and Nekhen. Sandwiched between Thinis and Nekhen,
Naqada was the first to fall. Thinis then conquered Lower Egypt. Nekhen's relationship with Thinis is uncertain, but
these two states may have merged peacefully, with the Thinite royal family ruling all of Egypt. The Thinite kings
were buried at Abydos in the Umm el-Qa'ab cemetery.

Most Egyptologists consider Narmer to be both the last king of this period and the first of the First Dynasty. He was
preceded by Iry-Hor, Ka and perhaps by the so-called "Scorpion King(s)", whose name may refer to, or be derived
from, the goddess Serket, a special early protector of other deities and the rulers.[2]

Naqada III extended all over Egypt and was characterized by some notable firsts:
• The first hieroglyphs
• The first graphical narratives on palettes
• The first regular use of serekhs
•• The first truly royal cemeteries
• Possibly the first example of irrigation
• The invention of sail navigation[3] (independently from its prior invention in the Persian Gulf 2,000 years earlier)

Page 2

Naqada III 2

[1][1] Shaw 2000, p. 479.
[2][2] Shaw 2000, p. 71.
[3] Meza, A.I. (2007) “Neolithic Boats: Ancient Egypt and the Maltese Islands. A Minoan Connection” J-C. Goyon,C. Cardin (Eds.) Actes Du

Neuvième Congrès International Des Égyptologues, p. 1287.

Further reading
• Anđelković, Branislav (2002). "Southern Canaan as an Egyptian Protodynastic Colony". Cahiers Caribéens

d’Égyptologie 3/4 (Dix ans de hiéroglyphes au campus): 75–92.
• Bard, Katherine A. (2000). "The Emergence of the Egyptian State". In Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient

Egypt. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 61–88. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
• Midant-Reynes, Béatrix (2000). The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Pharaohs. Oxford

and Malden: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-20169-6.
• Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
• Wilkinson, Toby Alexander Howard (2001). Early Dynastic Egypt (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

ISBN 0-415-18633-1.
• Wright, Mary (1985). "Contacts Between Egypt and Syro-Palestine During the Protodynastic Period". Biblical

Archeologist: Perspectives on the Ancient World from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean 48 (4): 240–53.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Naqada III.

• "Unification Theories" (http:/ / www. digitalegypt. ucl. ac. uk/ naqadan/ inegypt. html), Digital Egypt, UK: UCL.

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