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TitleMUSICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE COMPOSERS WHO LIVED DURING 17th to 18th CENTURY
LanguageEnglish
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Document Text Contents
Page 1

CHAPTER - III

MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE

COMPOSERS WHO LIVED DURING
17th to 18th CENTURY

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The compositions of five composers are dealt with in this chapter.

The most prolific composers like Trinity lived during this period. Their

period is rightly regarded as the golden age of Carnatic Music.

Irayimman Thampi, and Pallavi Doraiswamy Iyer also lived during this

period.

SY AMA SASTRY

Beginning lines of the compositions Raga Tala

1 . Devi brova Chintamani Adi

2. Mayamma Ahiri Adi

3. Adinamu Anandabhairavi Triputa

4. Kamakshi Varali Misrachapu

Ninnuvina purvikalyani chapu

Syama Sastry was born in 1762 in Tiruvarur. His father

Viswanatha Iyer was employed in the court of King Tulajaji. He was an

erudite scholar in Sanskrit and was also highly proficient in Telugu. His

earlier name was Venkita Subramonya and the pet name was

Syamakrishna. Viswanatha Iyer gave his son sound education in Sanskrit

and Telugu at a very early stage.

His mother observed his innate aptitude for music and persuaded

one of her cousins to teach him from the fundamentals of the science of

music. Within a short span of time Syama Sastry mastered the various

aspects of this fine art. His ancestors lived in KanchTpuram, performing

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In the pallavi the first padahas two sangatis,the secondpadahas

also two sangatis. In the anupallavi the first pada has two sangatis,the

secondpada has one sangati. There is a beautiful chittasvaraafter the

anupallavi. In the charanaeachpadahasonesangati. In the last padaof

the charanacomposer'smudraTyagarajais added.

The chittasvara has four avartas. It is sung at the end of the

anupallaviand at the endof the charana. It is a brisk composition. In the

chittasvaraall the avartasare starting in �t�h�~ svaramadhyasthayi shadja.

The beautiful svaracombinationsare found in this example,s p ) m gm,

d n ) p m d, n s)n d n and datu svara prayogasare also seen. Pallavi
starts in the madhyasthayi shadja. Anupallavi starts in madhyasthayi

gandhara,charanastarts in madhyasthayi madhyama. This composition

commencesafter the lapseof 3/4 aksharakalaof an avarta. Tyagarajais

the first composerto composekriti in this Desaditala.

DasarathiRaga-TodiTala - Adi

Backgroundof the incident

Tyagaraja composedthe above kriti when the renowned North

Indian musicianGopinathBhattacharyavisited Tyagaraja.

Gopinath Bhattacharya,a famous North Indian Musician planned

to go on pilgrimage to south as was the practice in those days for

devoteesfrom North, South and East. Meanwhile,oneday in his dream,

a vision directed him to visit Tyagaraja. When he went to south, he met

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Tyagaraja and expressed his eagerness to enjoy His musical composition

as many North Indian Musicians used to recite His compositions.

Tyagaraja was deeply touched. Then he composed 'Dasarathi' in Todi in

praise of Lord Rama.

Raga - Todi Tala - Adi

Pallavi

Dasarathi! nT runamu, dirpana

Darama? Paramapavana nama!

Anupallavi
_

Asadira dur desamulanu

Prakasimpa jesina rasikasiromani

Charanam
Bhaktileni kavijala varenyulu

Bhava meruga lerani kalilona jani

Bhukti mukti galgunani kirtinamula

Bodhinjina tyagaraja kararchita!

Meaning
Pallavi

(dasa)
' ,i

(dasa)

(dasa)

Oh ! Lord Rama, Is it possible for me to repay my debt to you (debt

of gratitude to your blessings)

Anupallavi

Oh ! Rasika Siromani, darling of rasikas, you have enlightened my

name in far off Lands beyond imagination.

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In the first charana sahitya dviteeyakshara prasa comes as

veda handa

bheda viheena

and Adyakshara prasa comes as

buruham thava

bhava kadanada

In the third charanam the word comes as Anuprasa

Saradiia Sarasiia
J. )

In the pallavi sahitya same word is repeated

Seve syanandureswara

Seve jagadeesvara

In the first and second charana Antya prasa occurs as

Nukalaye kalithadaram

Namadisathaa daram

Kamala gadaadadaram

Duritha nivaranam

Jalabha sameeranam

Vinutha mahaaranam

Mavithu mimamjanam

It's music is like the music of Navaratri kirtana in the raga Kalyani.

Kalyani is the 65
th

melakarta raga. A well known prati madhyamaraga. A

major raga and has an elaborate scope for alapana. Panchama varjya

prayogas add beauty to the raga. From the musical point of view the

pallavi has three sangatis. Pallavi starts in sama eduppu. It begins on tara

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