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TitleMunicipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues
LanguageEnglish
File Size49.7 MB
Total Pages1009
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Preface
Chapter 1 - Introduction
	1.1 A BRIEF HISTORICAL EXCURSUS
	1.2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF WASTE INCINERATION
	1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THIS TREATISE
	REFERENCES
Chapter 2 - Municipal Solid Waste
	2.0 INTRODUCTION
	2.1 DEFINITION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
	2.2 COMPOSITION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
	2.3 QUANTITY AND MANAGEMENT
	2.4 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 3 - Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Technologies
	3.1 FUEL RECEIPT AND HANDLING
	3.2 AVAILABLE COMBUSTION ALTERNATIVES
	3.3 HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS
	3.4 IN-PLANT RESIDUE MANAGEMENT
	REFERENCES
Chapter 4 - Air Emission Control Strategies
	4.0 INTRODUCTION
	4.1 COMBUSTION CONTROL
	4.2 POST-COMBUSTION CONTROL
	4.3 TYPICAL APC INSTALLATIONS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 5 - Regulation of MSW Incinerators
	5.1 EXISTING MSW INCINERATOR OPERATING GUIDELINES
	5.2 AIR EMISSION STANDARDS
	5.3 CURRENT ASH AND RESIDUE DISPOSAL PRACTICES
	REFERENCES
Chapter 6 - Issues Related to Incinerator Ash Sampling
	6.0 INTRODUCTION
	6.1 THE CONCEPT OF THE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE
	6.2 OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL SAMPLING PROGRAMS
	6.3 AVAILABLE SAMPLING PROTOCOLS
	6.4 SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS
	6.5 SAMPLE COLLECTION RECOMMENDATIONS
	6.6 EXAMPLES OF SAMPLING STRATEGIES
	REFERENCES
Chapter 7 - Characterisation Methodologies
	7.1 PHYSICAL TESTING
	7.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
	7.3 CHEMICAL SPECIATION METHODS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 8 - Fate of Elements During Incineration
	8.1 MECHANISMS CONTROLLING THE FATE OF ELEMENTS
	8.2 MASS STREAMS IN A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATOR
	8.3 LITHOPHILIC ELEMENTS
	8.4 VOLATILE ELEMENTS
	8.5 CARBON AND SELECTED CARBON COMPOUNDS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 9 - Bottom Ash
	9.1 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM ASH
	9.2 PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY, MINERALOGY, AND ALKALINITY OF BOTTOM ASH
	9.3 INORGANIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM ASH
	9.4 ORGANIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTTOM ASH
	9.5 CHARACTERISTICS OF GRATE SIFTINGS
	9.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBINED ASH AND SCRUBBER RESIDUE
	REFERENCES
Chapter 10 - Characteristics of Heat Recovery System Ash
	10.1 ASH DEPOSITION MECHANISMS
	10.2 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
	10.3 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 11 - Characterisation of Air Pollution Control Residues
	11.1 INTRODUCTION
	11.2 MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF APC RESIDUES
	11.3 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF APC RESIDUES
	11.4 PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY AND MINERALOGY
	11.5 WATER SOLUBILITY
	11.6 LOSS ON IGNITION
	11.7 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
	11.8 COMPOSITION OF WASTEWATER FROM WET SCRUBBER APC SYSTEMS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 12 - Physical Aspects of Leaching
	12.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO LEACHING
	12.2 THE SOLID PHASE/LEACHANT/SOLUTE LEACHING SYSTEM
	12.3 RESIDUE PARTICLES AS A SOLID PHASE
	12.4 FLUID FLOW, DIFFUSION AND MASS TRANSFER
	12.5 THE LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM ASSUMPTION
	REFERENCES
Chapter 13 - Chemical Aspects of Leaching
	13.1 LEACHING CHEMISTRY FUNDAMENTALS
	13.2 SOLUTION COMPLEXATION AND SPECIATION
	13.3 DISSOLUTION/PRECIPITATION REACTIONS
	13.4 CHEMICAL WEATHERING AND AGING
	13.5 SORPTION
	13.6 A UNIFIED APPROACH TO LEACHING
	REFERENCES
Chapter 14 - Leaching Tests
	14.1 PURPOSE OF LEACHING TESTS
	14.2 A UNIFIED APPROACH TO LEACHING TESTS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 15 - Leaching Modelling
	15.1 EQUILIBRIUM MODELS
	15.2 DYNAMIC MULTICOMPONENT MODELS
	15.3 FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN MODELLING
	REFERENCES
Chapter 16 - Leaching Data
	16.1 INTRODUCTION
	16.2 TOTAL SOLUBLE FRACTION AND AVAILABILITY OF ELEMENTS
	16.3 SOLUBILITY AND RELEASE OF ELEMENTS
	16.4 GEOCHEMICAL MODELLING OF LEACHING EQUILIBRIA
	16.5 RELEASE RATES OF ELEMENTS
	16.6 RESIDUE LEACHING IN THE CONTEXT OF REGULATORY LEACHING TESTS AND WASTE FROM OTHER SOURCES
	16.7 LEACHING OF ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS
	16.8 EFFECTS OF INCINERATOR OPERATION ON LEACHING
	16.9 EFFECTS OF RESIDUE PROCESSING AND MANAGEMENT ON LEACHING
	REFERENCES
Chapter 17 - Separation Processes
	17.1 DEFINITION OF PROCESS
	17.2 PHYSICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
	17.3 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL SEPARATION TECHNIQUES
	REFERENCES
Chapter 18 - Solidification & Stabilisation
	18.1 DEFINITION OF PROCESS
	18.2 EFFECTS OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILISATION
	18.3 EVALUATION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILISATION PROCESSES
	18.4 REVIEW OF AVAILABLE PROCESSES
	REFERENCES
Chapter 19 - Thermal Treatment
	19.1 DEFINITIONS
	19.2 GLASS COMPOSITION AND METALS RETENTION IN GLASS MATRICES
	19.3 PROCESSING
	19.4 THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES UNDER DEVELOPMENT
	19.5 VITRIFICATION
	19.6 FUSION
	19.7 SINTERING
	REFERENCES
Chapter 20 - Leaching of Products
	20.1 INTRODUCTION
	20.2 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FACTORS WHICH EFFECT CONSTITUENT RELEASE
	20.3 TEST METHODS FOR MONOLITHIC AND COMPACTED GRANULAR PRODUCTS
	20.4 INTERPRETATION OF DIFFUSION CONTROLLED RELEASE
	20.5. RELEASE FROM PRODUCTS CONTAINING INCINERATOR RESIDUES
	20.6 INTEGRATED INTERPRETATION OF pDe AND AVAILABILITY
	REFERENCES
Chapter 21 - Utilisation
	21.1 INTRODUCTION
	21.2 CURRENT AND PLANNED PROJECTS
	21.3 CURRENT REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
	21.4 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
	21.5 UTILISATION LIFE CYCLE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
	REFERENCES
Chapter 22 - Disposal
	22.1 INTRODUCTION
	22.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF INCINERATOR RESIDUE LANDFILL LEACHATES .
	22.3 DISPOSAL STRATEGIES
	22.4 DESIGN AND OPERATIONS ISSUES
	22.5 DISPOSAL PRACTICES
	22.6 DISPOSAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCINERATOR RESIDUES
	REFERENCES
INDEX
Studies in Environmental Science
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
INCINERATOR RESIDUES

Page 504

Figure 11.12 Trace Element Concentrations in Fly Ash (FA), Semi-DrylDry APC Products with Fly Ash (SPIDP) and Wet
Scrubber Products without Fly Ash (WP-FA)

Antinony, c d Cnroniun, c r

Y . a
1000

Vanadium, V iOOD

400

200

S i l v e r . ~g
120 1

C O M l t . CO
ioo 1

Page 505

472

Table 11.16
Trace Elements (<1,000 mg/kg) Measured in APC Residues from Mass Burn
Incinerators

Residue Element Mean Median 25-75 percentile range
(mg/kg) (mg/kg) (mg/kg)

FA Hg 8.0 6.0 2 .3- 10 17
Cd 390 290 240 - 480 26
Sb 530 450 340 - 690 12
Cr 650 730 430 - 840 26
Sr 280 250 140 - 400 12
Ni 140 110 91 - 110 25
As 130 130 49 - 200 17
V 51 45 32 - 63 15

Ag 55 53 33- 75 10
Co 51 54 30 - 69 17
Mo 40 30 25 - 37 13
Se 14 12 11 - 18 12

SP/DP Hg 15 12 8.4- 18 28
Cd 300 260 190 - 360 28
Sb 790 820 630 - 940 13
Cr 180 140 110 - 220 28
Sr 460 400 400- 500 6
Ni 94 30 23 - 60 25
As 170 170 120- 210 26
V 33 31 19- 50 6

Ag 22 14 1.1 - 49 11
Co 9.6 9.0 6.0 - 15 11
Mo 15 15 11 - 20 11
Se 8.2 7.0 4.8 - 11 23

WP Hg 650 660 240- 790 12
Cd 630 660 290 - 880 12
Sb 140 - 80- 200 2
Cr 240 210 130- 340 12
Sr 104 85 52 - 130 10
Ni 62 36 26 - 53 12
As 89 72 49 - 110 12
V 47 31 25 - 86 3

Co 9.8 9.7 4 .8- 16 12
Mo 12 6.0 3.0 - 24 11

FA: Fly ash
SD/DP:Semi-dry/dry APC process

products with fly ash

WP: Wet scrubber products without fly ash
n: Number of residues analysed

Page 1008

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