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TitleMobile Learning Transforming the Delivery of -
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Table of Contents
                            Front Matter
Table of Contents
Contributing Authors
PART ONE: Advances in Mobile
	Current State of Mobile Learning
	A Model for Framing Mobile Learning
PART TWO: Research on Mobile
	Mobile Distance Learning with PDAs:Development and Testing ofPedagogical and System SolutionsSupporting Mobile Distance Learners
	Using Mobile Learning to Enhancethe Quality of Nursing Practice Education
	Informal Learning Evidence in OnlineCommunities of MobileDevice Enthusiasts
	M-learning: Positioning Educatorsfor a Mobile, Connected Future
PART THREE: Applications of Mobile Learning
	Practitioners as Innovators: EmergentPractice in Personal Mobile Teaching,Learning, Work, and Leisure
	Design and Development of MultimediaLearning Objects for Mobile Phones
	From E-learning to Mobile Learning:New Opportunities
	MobilED – Mobile Tools andServices Platform for Formaland Informal Learning
	Exploring the Challenges andOpportunities of M-learningWithin an International DistanceEducation Programme
	Using Mobile Technologiesfor Multimedia Toursin a Traditional Museum Setting
	Use of Mobile Technologyfor Teacher Training
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Mobile Learning
Transforming the Delivery of Education

and Training

Edited by

Mohamed Ally

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140 Agnes Kukulska-Hulme • John Pettit

e-news, sharing media fi les, etc.) and users’ views on the attractions and
disadvantages of mobile learning. It was sent out to 150 alumni and elicited
fi fty-seven responses.

The main section of the questionnaire focused on the use of mobile
devices. Respondents were asked to give one or more examples in detail to
show how they used and continue to use the devices for the fi ve types of
activity. We were mainly interested in teaching and learning; however, the
three remaining categories were included with a view to examining whether
the other areas of use might have implications for teaching and learning.

The questionnaire stated that the terms “teaching” and “learning”
should be interpreted to include informal uses, for example teaching or
learning with friends, family or interest groups – as well as formal situations
inside or outside the classroom. For some respondents, “work” equates with
“teaching” because of their job. When analysing the questionnaire data we
were particularly interested in the types of activity undertaken, innovative
or unexpected uses of mobile devices, and issues mentioned by users. The
questionnaire results are reported with special regard to those aspects. As a
means of data collection, the questionnaire had typical advantages and draw-
backs; in particular, the open-ended questions elicited a good array of examples
that could not have been anticipated in advance, but they also allowed for
a few ambiguous responses that proved hard to interpret.

Nine interviewees were subsequently invited to amplify the responses
they had made in the questionnaire a few months previously. Our approach
was broadly phenomenological; in relation to the data arising from the
interviews, we were interested in gathering individual stories, but aimed not
to take these as unsituated accounts. The interviews illustrate ways in which
respondents are using mobile devices in diverse situations, and they provide
insights into user choices in relation to contexts of use, ergonomic issues,
and personal preferences. The nine interviewees were chosen principally
because their questionnaire responses suggested they were engaging in interesting
or novel applications, but we also took care to include at least some participants
from outside the United Kingdom. The interviewees were therefore not
chosen as being representative of the cohort; nevertheless, they gave the
opportunity to move outside the categories of the questionnaire and to
capture details of individual accounts and contexts. The interviewees talked
about their choice of device, the content of their activities, and the contexts,
both formal and informal, in which they used their devices. All the interviews
were carried out by an experienced researcher who was independent of the
project. The interviews were transcribed by an administrative assistant and
anonymized before being passed on to the authors of this chapter. The

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Practitioners as Innovators 141

interview fi ndings are only covered briefl y here; a fuller account is available
in Pettit and Kukulska-Hulme, 2007.

Questionnaire Findings

In this section we report the main fi ndings of the questionnaire. About three-
quarters of the respondents were aged 35 to 54 and a little over half (55 per
cent) were female. Over half lived principally in the United Kingdom, with
most of the remainder living in continental western Europe, and fi ve living
in Hong Kong, Japan, Peru, and the United States. Nearly all described their
profession as associated in some way with education or training.

Almost all respondents reported that they had used a mobile phone,
and about half stated they had used a PDA or MP3 player. Smartphones
were used by 18 per cent of those who answered this question; a smartphone
was defi ned in the questionnaire as “a mobile phone/PDA in one device.”

The fi ndings are reported here fi rstly in relation to the four types of
device and the fi ve areas addressed in the questionnaire, namely teaching,
learning, work, social interaction, and entertainment. We believe the most
valuable aspect of the fi ndings is the range and variety of activities mentioned
by respondents for each type of device, because of our overarching aim to
continue using our research to help disseminate innovative practice. For each
type of device, we concentrate on listing the activities that were undertaken
by respondents rather than the frequency with which they were mentioned.
Subsequently we also report on what respondents told us about being part
of groups and communities, whether they had undertaken specifi c activities
listed in the questionnaire, their views of what’s special about mobile learning
and what they perceive to be the single biggest disadvantage.

Mobile Phones

Of those who had used a mobile phone, 96 per cent reported using it for
social interaction and 78 per cent for work. Outside these uses, the fi gures
were much lower: 30 per cent for teaching, 19 per cent for entertainment,
quizzes and games, and 17 per cent for their own learning. Common mobile
phone uses across the categories of activity were contact, scheduling and
reminders, and as an alternative means of support, and these were also the
main uses of mobile phones in teaching. Communication with students by
mobile phone occasionally included the use of photographs and short news.
In addition, respondents mentioned teaching others about mobile devices,
for example how mobiles can be used for more than just voice communication,
but in those cases it seems that the phone was used in demonstration mode.

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