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TitleMobile Computer Usability: An Organizational Personality Perspective
Author
LanguageEnglish
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Table of Contents
                            Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
Contents
Figures
Tables
1 Introduction
	1.1…Usability of ICTs: Relevance and General Perspectives
		1.1.1 Social Construction and Technology Determinism
	1.2…Key Themes
		1.2.1 The Unity of Technology Applications
		1.2.2 The Continuity of Use Contexts
	1.3…The Significance of Unity and Continuity
	1.4…Theoretical Assumptions
		1.4.1 An Historical Conception of Human Beings
		1.4.2 An Historical Conception of ICTs
	1.5…Structure and Content
2 Mobility and Mobile ICTs
	2.1…Functional Perspective: Mobility of Humans and Objects
	2.2…Interactional Perspective: Spatial, Temporal and Context Mobility
		2.2.1 Spatial Mobility
		2.2.2 Temporal Mobility
		2.2.3 Contextual Mobility
	2.3…Mobile Services
	2.4…Historicity of Human Mobility
		2.4.1 Biological Inducements
		2.4.2 Socio-Cultural Inducements
	2.5…Historicity of Mobile ICTs
		2.5.1 Technological Inducements
		2.5.2 Socio-Economic Inducements
	2.6…Chapter Summary
3 The Historicity of Human Activity and Perception
	3.1…Background to Cultural Historical Activity Theory
	3.2…Activity Structure
	3.3…Activity System
	3.4…Principles of Activity
		3.4.1 Object-Orientation
		3.4.2 Externalisation and Internalisation
		3.4.3 Consciousness
		3.4.4 Contradictions
		3.4.5 Mediation and Prosthesis
	3.5…The Historical Epistemology of Perception
	3.6…Chapter Summary
4 The Co-evolution of Organization, Technology and Personality
	4.1…On Personality
	4.2…Modern Organization, Activity and Personality
		4.2.1 Embodied Labour and Collocated Organization
		4.2.2 Collocated Activity and Contradictions
		4.2.3 Modern Personality
	4.3…Trends in ICT Innovation
		4.3.1 Technological Trends
		4.3.2 Socio-Technical Offshoots
	4.4…Postmodern Organization, Activity and Personality
		4.4.1 Disembodied Human Capital and Distributed Organization
		4.4.2 Distributed Activity and Meta-Contradictions
		4.4.3 Uncertainties and Autonomy of Adaptation
		4.4.4 Postmodern or Organizational Personality
	4.5…Chapter Summary
5 Mobile Learning and Computing in the British NHS
	5.1…Background
	5.2…Project Outline
		5.2.1 Pedagogical Framework
		5.2.2 Implementation
	5.3…Information Management
		5.3.1 Architecture of Mobile Computing Support
		5.3.2 Mobile Computing: Integration of PDAs
		5.3.3 Data Capture
	5.4…Implementation and Use
		5.4.1 Stage One
		5.4.2 Stage Two
		5.4.3 Stage Three
		5.4.4 Learning Outcomes
	5.5…Summary
		5.5.1 Problematic Learning Conditions
		5.5.2 Marginalisation of Technology
6 Mobile Foreign Exchange Trading and Computing in a Bahrain Bank
	6.1…The Kingdom of Bahrain
		6.1.1 Bahrain as the Middle-East Financial Centre
		6.1.2 Bahrain Geographical Time Zone on the Global Financial Map
	6.2…The MideastBank
		6.2.1 The Bank’s Group Treasury
	6.3…The Dawn of Mobile ICT-Enabled Trading in MideastBank
		6.3.1 Evolution of Mobile ICT-Enabled Trading
	6.4…The Experience of Mobile Computing
		6.4.1 Interaction Overload in Mobile ICT-Enabled Trading
		6.4.2 From Equivoque to Adaptation
		6.4.3 Construction of Multiple Identities
	6.5…Summary of Findings
		6.5.1 Volatility and Control
		6.5.2 Expectations-Driven Configurations
7 Distributed Activities and Mobile Computing
	7.1…Conditions and Contradictions in Distributed Activities
		7.1.1 Distributed Learning and Contradictions
		7.1.2 Distance and Mobility
		7.1.3 Learning Conditions and Mobile Computing
	7.2…Organizational Control and Mobile Computing
		7.2.1 Control and Technology Use
		7.2.2 Control, Distributed Organization, and Mobile Computing
	7.3…Coordination and Mobile Computing
		7.3.1 Individualization of Coordination
		7.3.2 Duality of Flexibility
	7.4…Chapter Summary
8 The Organizational Personality Perspective on Mobile Computer Usability
	8.1…The Need for Unity and Continuity in Appropriation and Perception of Mobile Computers
		8.1.1 Motives and Mobile Conditions
		8.1.2 Flexibility of Mobile computing
		8.1.3 Design Properties and Inscriptions
		8.1.4 The Role of Representation and Perception
	8.2…Conceptualizing Mobile Computer Usability
		8.2.1 Arguments from User Appropriation
		8.2.2 Arguments from Perception
		8.2.3 Implications for Design and Implementation
		8.2.4 Implications for Research
	8.3…Chapter Summary
	8.4…Book Summary
AppendixMethodology and Other Notes
Bibliography
Author Index
Subject Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Progress in IS

Mobile Computer
Usability

Gamel O. Wiredu

An Organizational Personality
Perspective

Page 2

Progress in IS

For further volumes:
http://www.springer.com/series/10440

http://www.springer.com/series/10440

Page 110

• Structured training with a progression from isolated procedural skills (using
existing benchtop models at the St. Mary’s Hospital Skills Centre in London)
and clinical training (using the Harvey Cardiovascular Mannequin) to more
complex issues of diagnosis, clinical judgement and teamwork (using the project
team’s expertise in simulation technology to create a Virtual Surgical Envi-
ronment). This aspect was built on the Virtual Operating Theatre at St. Mary’s
and its associated Black Box recording technology and included realistic pre-
and post-operative scenarios.

• Ongoing performance monitoring. This aspect used a portfolio approach for
comprehensive simulator and clinical data capture. Objective measures of
clinical competence were combined with personal mentoring and extensive use
of feedback. Reflective self-assessment was also incorporated to encourage
professional growth.

• Portable information and communication technology was integrated to provide
ready access to clinical information and decision-making support, and to collect
and analyse performance data. Handheld computers (PDAs) were deployed to
play a key role in integrating clinical and theoretical medical information.
Protocols for common clinical management pathways were also established.

A dynamic interplay between service and educational needs was also imple-
mented to ensure that PSPs received continuing support even after initial training.
Besides, continuous audit of clinical practice highlighted areas for continuing
skills development and these were fed back into the educational framework.

5.3 Information Management

Monitoring clinical activities. It was believed that interviews and written feed-
back are extremely valuable but they would only give the training centre in
London indirect evidence of each participant’s clinical activity being performed in
his or her own hospital. In order to identify possible gaps in training, there was a
requirement for a method of remote monitoring and control of the professional
duties performed by the PSPs with the aim of ensuring the adequacy of oppor-
tunities to practise the clinical and motor skills they have been taught.

Creating a Portfolio of evidence. Each PSP was encouraged to keep a port-
folio of evidence that would act as a ‘map’ of their training. The portfolio was
thought to be fundamental for any future accreditation of PSP training and
acceptance of the profession, so it was important that it was built comprehensively
and accurately. In order to withstand external scrutiny and maximise learning, the
portfolio was incorporated to provide detailed evidence of clinical activities,
learning competencies, course materials and certificates. The critical aspect of this
portfolio creation was that records of each PSP’s clinical activity were to be made
contemporaneously while fresh in their memory, and a regular backup was meant
to be made by each PSP in case of loss or theft.

5.2 Project Outline 93

Page 111

Written reflections-on-action. It was also realised that learning journals are
both a way to collect evidence of professional activity and an educational tool to
help make experiences explicit by reflecting upon them. Learning journals help to
consolidate learning and play an important part in the transition from one pro-
fessional role to another. Each PSP was therefore encouraged to keep a learning
journal to allow a consolidation of the skills and knowledge learnt during formal
training with work-based skills acquired in their own hospitals.

Access to learning resources. Each participant was also encouraged to have
access to learning resources on the internet by means of a Virtual Learning
Environment (VLE) such as WebCT� or Blackboard�. Participants would be able
to access material on a standard desktop computer or by using a Personal Digital
Assistant (PDA).

5.3.1 Architecture of Mobile Computing Support

Without doubt, the PSP training project was characterised by distribution and
mobility—of the PSPs, of the learning activity, of the PDAs, and of information. It
entailed both local mobility within the hospital and remote mobility to and from
the training centre in London. For example, a PSP’s typical schedule of a day at
work involved physically joining the surgical team as they made their visits to the
surgical wards to examine patients. Sometimes, these visits could take up more
than half of the total shift period of the PSP. As one of the PSPs reported in an
e-mail when I asked about her availability to receive a phone call from me, her
response was that her ‘‘work is so MOBILE ….’’ In the parlance of Kristoffersen
and Ljungberg (2000), these forms of mobility are respectively conceptualised as
wandering and visiting (see Fig. 5.1).

The deployment of the PDAs was meant to provide computational support for
these forms of mobility. Particularly, the highly critical issues of monitoring and
remote control of the PSPs activities in their hospitals and the development of
learning portfolios were the targets of the computing support.

Activities monitoring and control, and portfolios of evidence of the learning
activities undertaken are requirements whose fulfilments were aimed at satisfying
two parties. First, the sponsors of the project, the European Union, had to be fed
with reports and statistics of proceedings of the training project. These reports
would convey the details of the activities that were actually undertaken by the
PSPs in their hospitals with the aim of underlining the credibility of the whole
training exercise and hence of the new professional role. Second, the wider
community of existing medical professionals had to be satisfied that this new
professional role was credible. Since professions in the medical field have existed
for centuries, the success of this new profession depended on the acceptance and
trust given by existing medical professionals. Thus, the portfolios were meant to
provide evidence of the depth and breadth of learning activities undertaken by the
PSPs in the instance where anyone doubted their relevance.

94 5 Mobile Learning and Computing in the British NHS

Page 220

Polychronic, 22
Portable, 1, 22, 33, 93, 96, 110, 134, 158,

163–165, 170, 171
Portable computers, 14, 25, 57, 76, 109, 132,

165
Positivism, 175, 176
Post-industrial society, 28
Postmodern organization, 10, 15, 33, 34,

36, 76, 78, 85, 87, 113, 131, 150, 156,
161

Postmodern personality, 15, 62, 85, 163
Postmodern professional, 87
Pragmatics, 2, 16, 109, 133, 140, 161, 167,

169, 171, 173
Pragmatism, 2, 16, 109, 140, 161, 167–169,

171, 173
Primary artefact, 56
Primary contradictions, 82, 86
Production, 7, 8, 10, 20, 43, 44, 47, 50, 51,

56–58, 66, 68, 76, 79, 81, 83, 86, 90, 134,
148, 160

Prosthesis, 45, 59
Psychological frame, 1, 131
Psychological tools, 6, 38, 39, 42, 43, 53–58,

132

Q
Qualitative data, 180, 185
Quantitative data, 180

R
Reflexive mode, 56, 161
Remote mobility, 16, 18, 26, 35, 49, 55–57,

59, 68, 80, 94, 135–137, 139, 142, 147,
159–161, 167, 171–173

Representation, 14, 16, 26, 48, 55–57, 59, 63,
68, 80, 135, 142, 147, 158–161, 167–169,
171, 172

Rhythms of interaction, 2, 165
Rules, 12, 24, 42–44, 45, 52, 56, 58, 70, 132,

133, 136, 144, 157

S
Secondary artefact, 56, 57
Self mastery, 160
Semantics, 184
Semiconductor chip, 71
Sense-data, 160, 161
Sense-making, 15, 27, 46, 51, 69, 81, 86,

134–136, 153
Service divergence, 75

Simple contradictions, 70
Situated actions, 23
Situated reality, 180
Slow-moving capital, 70, 86, 87
Smartphones, 7, 17, 73, 74
Social construction, 4–6, 27, 31, 123, 129, 164,

165
Social constructionism, 165
Social flexibility, 122, 125
Social impact, 2, 17
Social meaning, 51, 53
Social mobility, 34
Social reality, 63, 116, 117, 122
Social semiotics, 51
Social shaping, 17
Social-psychological, 3, 158, 159, 162, 166,

172
Socio-cultural inducements, 14, 26, 30, 33, 36
Socio-economic inducements, 135
Sociological, 10, 12, 14, 24, 158, 159, 162,

166, 172
Socio-technical divergence, 75, 87
Spatial mobility, 21, 30
Statistical analysis, 177
Sticky knowledge, 66
Strong inscriptions, 144, 146, 157
Structural meaning, 51, 53, 184
Structural representation, 56, 142, 161
Structural semiotics, 160
Structural temporality, 22
Structurational model, 4, 5, 164, 165
Subjectivity, 129
Subjectivization, 153
Syntactics, 184

T
Tablet computers, 7, 17
Task-technology, 167
Task-technology fit, 167
Techne, 31
Technology acceptance, 4, 164, 170
Technology applications, 3, 15
Technology-as-object, 156
Technology determinism, 4
Teleology, 56, 142, 169
Telephone, 7, 21, 74, 120, 121
Television, 7, 72, 73, 75
Temporal mobility, 22, 23
Tertiary artefact, 56, 57, 59
Tool , 9, 10, 38, 40, 41, 43, 45, 47, 51, 53–55,

58, 59, 66, 69, 81, 83, 94, 110, 155–157,
172

Travelling, 19, 29, 33, 35, 139, 148

210 Subject Index

Page 221

U
Ubiquity, 2, 25, 73, 74, 161, 167, 169, 171,

173
Uncertainty, 24, 25, 65, 79, 84, 125
United Kingdom, 15
Unity, 1, 3, 7–10, 13–16, 35, 36, 58, 61, 66, 81,

141, 162, 172
Upward flexibility, 74
Urbanization, 28, 36
Usability, 1–6, 9–11, 13–17, 37, 58, 64, 85,

113, 131, 141, 151, 153, 159, 161, 162,
165, 167, 170, 172, 173

User acceptance, 3, 4, 6, 164, 166, 170
User satisfaction, 3, 165, 166, 169,

172, 173

V
Visiting, 18, 19, 35, 94
Volatility, 16, 34, 108, 113, 114, 118, 119,

122–125, 127, 128, 140, 146

W
Wandering, 18, 19, 35, 94, 137, 158
Weak inscriptions, 145, 146
Wireless systems, 72
Work, 1–3, 7, 9, 15, 18, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29,

32–34, 36, 40, 41, 43, 45, 48, 54, 58, 90,
94, 99, 102, 109

Workplace learning, 68, 81, 89, 109
World Wide Web (WWW), 17, 28, 71, 72, 87

Subject Index 211

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