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Table of Contents
                            Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01396
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01410a
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01527
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01536
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01539
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01620
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01623
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01627
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01628
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01630
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01631
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01636
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01637
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01638a
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01644a
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01645
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01652a
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01666
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01667
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01668
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01669
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01673
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01681
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01688a
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01709
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01713a
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01714
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01717
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01718
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01721
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01722
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01726
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01728
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01729
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01736
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01760a
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01764
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01770
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01801
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01814
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01821
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01822
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01823
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01824
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01825
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01826
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01827
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01828
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01829
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01830
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01831
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01832
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01833
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01834
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01835
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01836
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01837
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01839
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01840
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01841
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01842
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01843
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Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01845
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01846
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01847
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01848
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01849
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01850
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01851
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01852
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01853
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01868
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01869
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01870
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01871
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01872
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01873
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01874
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01875
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01876
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01877
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01880
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01881
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01884
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01885
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01887
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01888
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01889
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01890
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01891
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01892
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01893
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01894
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01895
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01896
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01897
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01898
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01899
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01900
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01901
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01902
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01903
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01904
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01905
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01906
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01907
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01908
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01909
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01910
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01911
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01912
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01913
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01914
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01915
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01916
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01917
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01918
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01919
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01920
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01921
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01923
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01924
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01925
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01926
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01927
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01928
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01929
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01930
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01931
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01932
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01933
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01934
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01935
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01937
Jon - Upon a Stone Altar01938
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

PACIFIC ISLANDS MONOGRAPH SERIES

Robert C. Kiste
General editor

Linley Chapman
Manuscript editor

EDITORIAL BOARD

David Hanlon
ReneeHeyum
Alan Howard

Brij V. Lal
Norman Meller
Donald Topping
Deborah Waite

Karen A. Watson-Gegeo

The Pacific Islands Monograph Series is a joint effort of the University
of Hawaii Press and the Center for Pacific Islands Studies, University of
Hawaii. The series includes works in the humanities and social sciences
that focus on the insular Pacific.

Page 213

Brothers in the Faith 193

Lawes was aware, was their government in the field. The Wesleyans
imported into New Guinea, as into their other fields, the whole com-
plex, hierarchical organization that characterized Wesleyan Method-
ism. Accordingly, New Guinea was administered as one district of the
Methodist Church, over which presided a chairman. His position was
analogous to that of a bishop, although his authority was more limited,
being subject to the sanction of the synod, the annual meeting of the
mission district. 54 Within the New Guinea district five circuits were
established, each in the charge of a superintendent. The circuit was
composed of a series of churches, mostly run by South Sea Island teach-
ers, within which operated the traditional local organization of society
meetings, class meetings, prayer meetings, and services.

In marked contrast to the almost anarchic individualism of the LMS
was the tightly controlled, unified, and cohesive polity of Methodism.
The Wesleyans entered New Guinea as an invading army, a disciplined,
united cadre of Christianity. That they saw themselves in this light is
apparent in their rhetoric, which rings with battle imagery. Their
impressive initial landing was "an attack in force"; extensions into hea-
then villages were incursions into "the enemy's camp."55 Reports sent
home to be published in the Missionary Review were headed "News
from the Front," while a missionary on deputation could delight his lis-
teners with firsthand news "from the seat of war."56 This self-confident,
aggressive onslaught won the admiration of Sir Willam MacGregor.

Methodist missionaries derived comfort, support, and inspiration
from the mission's structure. But, like the very different organization of
the LMS, it was at times a source of conflict. Its greatest inherent dan-
ger was the temptation of those at the head of district and circuits to
arrogate powers not legally theirs. In the circuits, where even the chair-
man was not permitted to intervene except through persuasion, a super-
intendent could assume almost unbridled power. "You will do well to
give Mr Fellows a little good advice;' George Brown told Bromilow. "I
am afraid he is in danger of being too overbearing with the natives .
. . . He is a very energetic man and certainly magnifies his office."57 As
in the LMS, authoritarian control was exerted not only over the
Papuans of the circuit but also over its South Sea Island teachers. "Right
royal devotion do we get from most of the teachers;' reported the mis-
sionary at Bunama, James Osborne. "The travels of a white missionary
here are like the visitations of a colonial governor, so enthusiastically is
he received."58

But while the superintendent ruled supreme within his circuit, the
position of chairman was potentially the most powerful in the district.
William Bromilow was a strong and authoritarian chairman in the New
Guinea district, as were his contemporaries Langham in Fiji and Goldie

Page 214

194 ChapterS

in the Solomon Islands. "Bromilow seems to be autocratic and to be
doing things of all kinds without consulting his colleagues;' observed
MacGregor. 59 Those who suffered most from Bromilow's regime were
members of the two new orders introduced through New Guinea into
the missionary structure of Australasian Methodism-the missionary
sisters and the lay missionaries. Although accorded full missionary sta-
tus after the customary year's probation, they found themselves in fact
forced to occupy an inferior position in the hierarchy of the mission.
This led to the resignation of the first lay missionary, George Bardsley,
and of several of the missionary sisters, whose status was probably fur-
ther diminished by virtue of their being women. 60

Among the Papuans, Bromilow's authority was absolute (Figure 21).
"Who rules over us?" he interrogated a class of children at Dobu. "You;'
they replied in unison. 61 The effect on them of the concentration of
power in Bromilow's hands was apparent after his retirement in 1908.
"Very deeply do we feel the loss of Mr and Mrs Bromilow ;· wrote his
successor, Matthew Gilmour, likening their departure to "the taking
away of training poles from young plants."62 Their departure coincided
with a time of crisis in Australian Methodism. The generous contribu-
tions inspired by the Wesleyan Centenary Fund, which had launched
the mission, had not been maintained, and by 1909 the Society had a
deficit of £10,000. In 1914 the allocation for Papua was reduced by
more than a thousand pounds to £7,640 instead of being increased by
two thousand pounds as had been anticipated. 63 At the same time, the
supply of teachers was diminishing rapidly, and it was becoming appar-
ent that the policy of employing a small white staff augmented by a
large support staff of South Sea Islanders was inoperable. 64 By 1914
there were few echoes of the brash and energetic self-confidence that
had characterized the Methodists who first invaded New Guinea.

The Anglican Mission

Addressing the annual anniversary conference of the Anglican Mission
in 1902, Henry Newton told his colleagues that "it is almost impossible
to get the official mind and that of the public to realise that we Angli-
cans are not members of a Mission Society, but are an integral part, one
diocese, of the Anglican Church;' whose task happened to be preaching
the gospel to the heathen. "There is no Anglican mission society and
there never has been one in New Guinea;' he added. 65

The Anglican Mission in New Guinea had its origins in the catholic
conviction that mission work was the duty "not of societies within the
Church, but of the Church itself-of the Church as a whole."66 This
belief had inspired the Anglican bishops of Australia and New Zealand

Page 425

OTHER VoLUMES IN THE

PACIFIC IsLANDS MoNOGRAPH SERIES

No. 1 The First Taint of Civilization: A History of the Caroline and
Marshall Islands in Pre-Colonial Days, 1521-1885, by Francis X.
Hezel, 1983

No. 2 Where the Waves Fall: A New South Sea Islands History from
First Settlement to Colonial Rule, by K. R. Howe, 1984

No. 3 Wealth of the Solomons: A History of a Pacific Archipelago,
1800-1978, by Judith A. Bennett, 1987

No. 4 Nan'yo: The Rise and Fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-
1945, by Mark R. Peattie, 1988

No. 5 Upon a Stone Altar: A History of the Island of Pohnpei to 1890,
by David Hanlon, 1988

Page 426

n Production Notes
This book was designed by Roger Eggers.
Composition and paging were done on the
Quadex Composing System and typesetting
on the Compugraphic 8400 by the design and
production staff of University of Hawaii
Press.

The text typeface is Compugraphic Caledonia
and the display typeface is Compugraphic
Palatino.

Offset presswork and binding were done by
Vail-Ballou Press, Inc. Text paper is Glatfelter
Offset Vellum, basis 45.

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