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Table of Contents
		Microbial Food Safety
		Part I: Microorganisms and Food Contamination
		Emerging and Reemerging Foodborne Pathogens
			1 Introduction
			2 Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases
			3 The Origin of Human Pathogens
			4 Modern Views of Disease Agents, Evolution, and Epidemiology
			5 How Bacteria Evolve
			6 New Opportunities for Pathogens to Infect Humans
				6.1 Changes in Food Production and Processing Practices
			7 Recognition of At-Risk Populations
			8 Changes to and Expansion of Our Diets
			9 Summary
		Clinical Presentations and Pathogenicity Mechanisms of Bacterial Foodborne Infections
			1 Introduction
			2 Salmonella spp.
			3 Campylobacter jejuni
			4 Shigella spp.
			5 Escherichia coli
			6 Listeria monocytogenes
			7 Summary
		Microbiology Terms Applied to Food Safety
			1 Introduction
			2 Bacterial Cell Wall and Gram’s Reaction
			3 Multiplicity of Food Organisms
			4 Bacterial Growth
			5 Indicators of Contamination
			6 Important Factors Influencing Microbial Growth
			7 Classification of Foodborne Bacteria
				7.1 Based on Temperature Tolerance
				7.2 Based on Oxygen Requirements
				7.3 Based on Physiological Tolerance Levels
				7.4 Based on Substrate Breakdown
				7.5 Based on Extensiveness of Hazard
			8 Microorganisms Involved in Food Safety
				8.1 Gram-Positive Foodborne Pathogens
				8.2 Gram-Negative Foodborne Pathogens
				8.3 Foodborne Prions
				8.4 Molds of Foodborne Importance
				8.5 Foodborne Parasites and Protozoa
			9 Bacteria Involved in the Spoilage of Foods
			10 Bacteria in Foods Beneficial to Humans
			11 Summary
		Methods for Identification of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens
			1 Introduction
			2 Culture-Based Methods for Isolation and Identification
			3 Immunological or Antibody-Based Assays
			4 Nucleic Acid-Based Assays
			5 Summary
		Methods for Epidemiological Studies of Foodborne Pathogens
			1 Introduction
			2 Methods Based on PCR Amplification
				2.1 Repetitive Polymerase Chain Reaction (REP-PCR)
			3 Methods Based on PCR Amplification and Restriction
			4 Methods Based on Restriction of the Whole Genome
			5 Methods Based on DNA Sequencing
				5.1 Multilocus Sequence Typing
			6 Analysis and Interpretation of Results
				6.1 Comparison and Analysis of Band Patterns
				6.2 Comparison and Analysis of Densitometric Curves
				6.3 Analysis of DNA Sequence Data
				6.4 Cluster Analysis
			7 Understanding Relatedness in Molecular Epidemiology
			8 Choice of Typing Methods
			9 Summary
		Foodborne Viruses*
			1 Introduction
			2 Norovirus: Half of the Problem
				2.1 Clinical Presentation
				2.2 Epidemiology
			3 Hepatitis Viruses
				3.1 Clinical Presentation
				3.2 Epidemiology
			4 Other Foodborne Viruses: A Mixed Bag
			5 Prevention and Control of Viral Foodborne Pathogens
				5.1 Vaccines
				5.2 Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP)
				5.3 Food-Handling Hygiene (Processing, Preparing, Serving)
				5.4 Hygienic Food Growing and Harvesting
				5.5 Cleanup of Infected Materials
			Box 1 Outbreak Investigation #1: Come Together
			Box 2 Outbreak Investigation #2: Strawberry Fields
			Box 3 Outbreak Investigation #3: Green Onion (Wheeler et al. 2005)
		Part II: Safety of Major Food Products
	Safety of Produce
		1 Introduction
		2 Produce Safety
		3 Potential Hazards Associated with Produce
			Box 1 Nonbacterial Foodborne Illnesses
		4 Foodborne Illness Associated with Produce
			Box 2 Produce-associated Outbreaks Reported from 1973 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2002
			Box 3 Outbreak Alert!
			4.1 Bacterial Pathogens Associated to Produce
				4.1.1 Escherichia coli O157:H7
				4.1.2 Listeria monocytogenes
				4.1.3 Salmonella spp.
				4.1.4 Shigella spp.
		5 Routes and Sources of Produce Contamination
		6 Measures to Reduce the Risk of Foodborne Illness
			Box 4 HACCP and Produce
		7 Summary
	Safety of Fruit, Nut, and Berry Products
		1 Introduction
		2 Fruits and Fruit Products
		3 Nuts and Nut Products
			3.1 Berries and Berry Products
			3.2 Role of Contaminating Protozoa
			3.3 Viruses in Berries
			3.4 Important Bacterial Contaminants in Berries
			3.5 Role of Fungi in Berry Contamination
			3.6 Other Contaminants
		4 Summary
	Safety of Dairy Products
		1 Introduction
		2 Trends in Dairy-Related Outbreaks
			Box 1 FDA Recalls of Dairy Products from 1990 to 2009
		3 Development of Pasteurization
			Box 2 The Risk of Raw Milk Consumption
		4 Major Pathogens of Current Concern
			4.1 Salmonella in Dairy Products
				Box 3 Contamination Can Result in Large Outbreaks of Foodborne Pathogens
			4.2 Importance of Contamination with Campylobacter jejuni
			4.3 Escherichia coli in Dairy Products
			4.4 Importance of Listeria monocytogenes
			4.5 Bacillus cereus
			4.6 Brucella Species
			4.7 Clostridium botulinum
			4.8 Staphylococcus aureus
			4.9 Yersinia enterocolitica
			4.10 Uncommon Milkborne Pathogens
		5 Emerging Milkborne Concerns
			5.1 Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease
			5.2 Cryptosporidiosis
			5.3 Johne’s Disease
			5.4 Cronobacter sakazakii
		6 Summary
	Safety of Meat Products
		1 Introduction
		2 Foodborne Disease and the Role of Meat and Meat Products
		3 Hazards Associated with Meat and Meat Products
			3.1 Salmonella spp.
			3.2 Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)
			3.3 Campylobacter spp.
			3.4 Listeria monocytogenes
			3.5 Parasites and Viruses
			3.6 Microbial Toxins
		4 Controls in the Food Chain
		5 Summary
	Safety of Fish and Seafood Products
		1 Introduction
		2 Regulatory Requirements for Seafood Safety
		3 Core Programs for Seafood Safety
		4 Species-Related Considerations
			4.1 Bacterial Pathogens
			4.2 Parasites
			4.3 Natural Toxins
				4.3.1 Ciguatoxin
				4.3.2 Planktonic Toxins
				4.3.3 Gempylotoxin
				4.3.4 Tetrodotoxin
			4.4 Histamine and Scombrotoxin
			4.5 Chemical Contaminants
			4.6 Aquaculture Drugs
			4.7 Allergens
		5 Product- and Package-Related Considerations
			5.1 Product Type: Cooked or Pasteurized (e.g., Shrimp, Crab, Finfish, Surimi Seafood)
				5.1.1 In Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
				5.1.2 In Other Than Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
			5.2 Product Type: Smoked (e.g., Fish and Shellfish)
				5.2.1 In Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
				5.2.2 In Other Than Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
			5.3 Product Type: Battered/Breaded (e.g., Raw Shrimp, Finfish, Shellfish)
				5.3.1 All Packaging Types
			5.4 Product Type: Stuffed Seafood (e.g., Stuffed Finfish, Shellfish)
				5.4.1 All Packaging Types
			5.5 Product Type: Dried, Cured, and Salted Fish
				5.5.1 All Packaging Types
			5.6 Product Type: Raw Shellfish (Products That May Be Consumed Raw)
				5.6.1 In Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
				5.6.2 In Other Than Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
			5.7 Product Type: Raw or Partially Cooked Finfish (Products May Be Consumed Raw)
				5.7.1 In Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
				5.7.2 In Other Than Reduced-Oxygen Packaging
			5.8 Product Type: Shelf-Stable Low-Acid or Acidified Canned Seafood
				5.8.1 All Packaging Types
		6 Summary
	Part III: Risk Analysis, Interventions and Regulations
	Food Risk Analysis
		1 Introduction
		2 Risk Assessment Modeling Concepts
			2.1 Hazard Identification
			2.2 Exposure Assessment
			2.3 Hazard Characterization
			2.4 Risk Characterization
		3 Risk Assessment Modeling Methods
			3.1 Discrete Distribution
			3.2 Pert Distribution
			3.3 Logical Function
			3.4 “POWER” Function
			3.5 “ROUND” Function
			3.6 “LOOKUP” Function
			3.7 @Risk Functions
			3.8 Scenario Analysis
			3.9 Transparency
		4 Risk Analysis Example: Design and Input Settings
			4.1 Hazard Identification
			4.2 Exposure Assessment
			4.3 Hazard Characterization
			4.4 Risk Characterization
		5 Risk Analysis Example: Results
			5.1 Hazard Identification and Exposure Assessment
			5.2 Hazard Characterization
			5.3 Risk Characterization
			5.4 Risk Management and Communication
		6 Summary
	Interventions to Inhibit or Inactivate Bacterial Pathogens in Foods
		1 Introduction
		2 Microbial Factors
		3 Environmental Factors
		4 Intrinsic Factors
		5 Interventions
			5.1 Inactivation
			5.2 Inhibition
			5.3 Interactions
		6 Summary
	Food Regulation in the United States
		1 Introduction
		2 The Food and Drug Administration
			Box 1 six amendments to the 1906 act
			Box 2 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
			2.1 Food Code
			2.2 HACCP
				2.2.1 Fish Products
				2.2.2 Juice Products
				2.2.3 Pasteurized Milk Ordinance
		3 Food Safety and Inspection Service
			3.1 The Federal Meat Inspection Act
			3.2 Poultry Products Inspection Act
			3.3 Wholesome Meat Act of 1967 and the Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968
				Box 4 State Meat & Poultry Inspection PRograms
			3.4 Meat and Poultry HACCP
			3.5 Listeria Regulations
				Box 5 Listeria Regulations for Ready to Eat Products
			3.6 Egg Products Inspection Act
			3.7 Imported Products
		4 Where to Find Laws and Regulations
			Box 6 How to search for a government law and/or regulation
			Box 7 Federal Register
		5 Summary
	Role of Different Regulatory Agencies in the United States
		1 Introduction
		2 Managing a Global Food Supply Chain
		3 Federal Agencies Regulating Food Safety and Key Statutes and Regulations
			3.1 The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
				3.1.1 Office of Food
				3.1.2 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)
				3.1.3 Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)
				3.1.4 Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA)
			3.2 The Food Safety and Inspection Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
				Box 1 Federal Meat, Poultry and Egg Inspection Acts
				3.2.1 USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
				3.2.2 Office of Field Operations (OFO)
			3.3 The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
				3.3.1 Collaborative Efforts Among the DHS, FDA, and USDA
			3.4 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
		4 Challenges of Establishing a Single Food Agency
		5 The Regulatory Process
		6 Example of the U.S. Regulatory Process: Making “Right Way Pizza”
		7 Training
		8 Summary
	Part IV: List of Other Food Safety Resources
	Food Safety Resources
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Food Science Text Series

The Food Science Text Series provides faculty with the leading teaching tools. The Editorial Board
has outlined the most appropriate and complete content for each food science course in a typical
food science program and has identifi ed textbooks of the highest quality, written by the leading food
science educators.

Series Editor
Dennis R. Heldman

Editorial Board
David A. Golden, Ph.D., Professor of Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science and
Technology, University of Tennessee

Richard W. Hartel, Professor of Food Engineering, Department of Food Science, University of

Hildegarde Heymann, Professor of Food Sensory Science, Department of Food Science and
Technology, University of California-Davis

Joseph H. Hotchkiss, Professor, Institute of Food Science and Institute for Comparative and
Environmental Toxicology, and Chair, Food Science Department, Cornell University

Michael G. Johnson, Ph.D., Professor of Food Safety and Microbiology, Department of Food
Science, University of Arkansas

Joseph Montecalvo, Jr., Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, California Polytechnic
and State University-San Luis Obispo

S. Suzanne Nielsen, Professor and Chair, Department of Food Science, Purdue University

Juan L. Silva, Professor, Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion, Mississippi
State University

For further volumes:

Page 129

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127O.A. Oyarzabal and S. Backert (eds.), Microbial Food Safety: An Introduction, Food Science Text Series,
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-1177-2_9, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

E. T. Ryser (*)
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition , Michigan State University , East Lansing , MI , USA
e-mail: [email protected]

1 Introduction

Milk, defi ned here as the lacteal secretion practically free from colostrum obtained by the complete
milking of one or more healthy cows, sheep, or goats, is the “life blood” of the dairy industry;
approximately 190 billion pounds of milk was produced in the United States during 2008 ( NASS-
USDA 2009 ). Before collection, milk within the udder of a healthy animal is sterile. However, the
same is not true for animals suffering from mastitis, which is an infection of their mammary glands.
Milk from these animals harbors potentially high numbers of bacteria, some of which are well-
recognized human milkborne pathogens . During milking, a wide range of benefi cial lactic acid
bacteria as well as numerous spoilage organisms (e.g., Gram-negative psychrotrophs ) and bacterial
pathogens (e.g., Salmonella, Listeria ) present in the teat canal and on the external teat surface can
contaminate the milk. Under certain circumstances, additional microorganisms entering from the
udder/teat surface, bedding material, manure, feed, milking equipment, and/or milk handlers sub-
stantially increase the numbers of psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria. Because milk is a highly
nutritious growth medium containing approximately 5% lactose, 3.5% fat, and 3% protein (primarily
casein), it is imperative that the product be rapidly chilled to a temperature of 1–4°C after milking to
minimize microbial growth.

Reported dairy-related outbreaks of illness date back to the inception of the dairy industry, as
previously reviewed elsewhere by the author (Ryser 1999 ) . Before World War II, a group of diseases
now of primarily historical concern – namely, diphtheria, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, and typhoid
fever – were frequently linked to the consumption of raw milk contaminated from ill or previously
infected milk handlers. Following the adoption of thermal pasteurization of milk as a standard com-
mercial practice in the United States, the involvement of dairy products in foodborne and waterborne
outbreaks has decreased drastically, with the majority of foodborne outbreaks now traced to vegeta-
bles, seafood, multi-ingredient products, fresh produce, poultry, and beef (CSPI 2007 ) . These earlier
historical causes of milk-related illness have now been replaced by such widely recognized bacterial
foodborne pathogens as Salmonella , Campylobacter , Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria mono-
cytogenes , all of which are present in about 1–4% of the raw milk produced in the United States and
other developed countries. Hence, it is not surprising that most recent dairy-related outbreaks have
involved dairy farmers who regularly consume raw milk (Jayarao et al. 2006 ) and a small but grow-
ing group of raw milk proponents, all of whom comprise <1% of all milk drinkers.

Safety of Dairy Products

Elliot T. Ryser

Page 258


Risk assessment modeling
description, 175
exposure assessment, 176
hazard characterization, 176–177
hazard identifi cation, 176

discrete distribution, 178
hazard and risk characterization, 178–180
hazard identifi cation and exposure, 178, 180
logical function, 178
“LOOKUP” function, 181
“POWER” function, 180
@risk functions, 181
“ROUND” function, 180
scenario analysis, 181
transparency, 181

risk characterization, 177
Risk characterization

description, 177
formula, 178, 180
frequency distribution, 185, 186
iterations, 185–186
model, 178, 179

Roberts, D., 112
Rodgers, F., 112
Rodhouse, J.C., 112
Rohde, M., 13–26
Rooney, R., 118
ROP. See Reduced-oxygen packaging
Rossman, A., 118
Rowan, A., 118
Rowe. B., 112
RT-PCR. See Reverse transcription-polymerase

chain reaction
Ryser, E.T., 127–142

Safety, products

berries ( see Berries)
CDC foodborne outbreak online database

(FOOD) analysis, 109, 110–111
foodborne illness, 113
fruits, 113–114
nuts, 114–116

Salmonella spp.
animal food, 16
bacterial attachment, toxins and proteins, 18, 19
categories, 149
cheese, 135
dairy products, 133–134
disease agents, 110–111
electron micrograph scanning, 16
family and species, 15–16
foodborne pathogens and zoonotic, 96
genetic matches, 101
HTST and LTLT pasteurization, 134
infections, 17, 149
infective dose, 101

internalization, 114
macropinocytosis, 18
outbreaks, humans, 16
pathogenicity islands, 17
product consumption, 121
role, 17–18
SipA and SipC, 18
sporadic food poisoning, 16
T3SS–1 effector, 18
typhoid and nontyphoid species, 17

Sanderson, P.J., 112
Scheil, W., 112
Schwartz, D.C., 60
Schwieger, M., 112
Scott, P., 118
Semmelweis, I, 5
SGLT–1. See Sodium-d-glucose cotransporter
Sharapov, U., 73
Shellfi sh, 82, 84, 220
Shigella spp.

acute GI disorder, 21
adherence factors, 21–22
diagnosis, 21
IcsA, 22
IpaA-D binds, 22
macrophages, 22
pathogens and symptoms, 21

Shohat, T., 112
SID. See Simpson’s index of diversity
Simmons, G., 118
Simpson’s index of diversity (SID), 67–68
Sinclair, U., 9
Slater, P.E., 112
Slutsker, L., 130
Sneath and Sokal index, 64
Snow, J., 5
Sodium-d-glucose cotransporter (SGLT–1), 24
Stack, M., 118
Stafford, R., 112
Staphylococcus aureus , 76, 139
Stuart, J.M., 112
Sufi , F., 112
Sumner, S., 118
Sung, N., 195
Surnam, S., 112
Susman, M., 112

Tan, A., 112
Tauxe, R.V., 98, 112
Taylor, J.L., 112
Taylor, L.H., 4
Taylor, P., 118
TDT. See Thermal death time
Tegtmeyer, N., 13–26
Thermal death time (TDT) curve, 193
Thornley, C., 118

Page 259

262 Index

Threlfall, J., 112
Todd, E.C., 76
Tournas, V., 118
Toxin, 220
Tuttle, J., 112
Typing methods, 68–69

United States Public Health Service (USPHS), 208
U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and

Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), 100, 222
U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious

Diseases, 4
Uyttendaele, M., 118

Vacuum packaging, 198–199
Valcanis, M., 112
van Leeuwenhoek, A., 5
van Zandvoort-Roelofsen, J., 118
Venkitanarayanan, K., 33–43
von Bonsdorff, C.-H., 118
Vugia, D.J., 112

Wachsmuth, K., 98
Wall, P.G., 112
Wang, J., 118
Ward, K., 118
Ward, L.R., 112
Watchel, M.R., 102
Weber, J.T., 99
Wells, J.G., 99
Whitehand, L.C., 102
Whyte, P., 147–155
Wilkinson, N., 118
Wilson, D., 112
Wilson, M.M., 112
Wood, R.C., 135
Woolhouse, M.E.J., 4

Yersinia enterocolitica , 76, 139–140

Zhou, B., 102

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