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TitleMental health and wellbeing among adolescents in Scotland
LanguageEnglish
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Total Pages98
Table of Contents
                            Text13
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Mental health and wellbeing among

adolescents in Scotland: profile and

trends




Carolyn Black and Chris Martin

Ipsos MORI Scotland

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Contents
Contents ................................................................................................................ 2

Executive Summary ................................................................................................ 4
Introduction and background ............................................................................. 4
Changes in mental health and wellbeing over time ........................................... 4
Profile of mental health and wellbeing in 2013 .................................................. 5
Predictors of mental health and wellbeing ......................................................... 5

1 Background and methodology ....................................................................... 7
Policy background ................................................................................................. 7
Survey background and purpose ........................................................................... 8
Methodology .......................................................................................................... 8

Mental health and wellbeing indicators .............................................................. 9
2 Changes in mental health and wellbeing over time ................................... 11

Wider context of mental health trends among adolescents ................................. 11
Overall mental health and wellbeing trends ......................................................... 11

Trends in individual SDQ scales ...................................................................... 12
Emotional problems ......................................................................................... 13
Conduct problems ............................................................................................ 14
Hyperactivity .................................................................................................... 14
Peer problems ................................................................................................. 14
Pro-social score ............................................................................................... 15
WEMWBS ........................................................................................................ 15
Comparisons with other mental health and wellbeing indicators ..................... 16

3 Profile of mental health and wellbeing in 2013 ........................................... 18
Geography ........................................................................................................... 18
Family .................................................................................................................. 20
Friends ................................................................................................................. 23
School .................................................................................................................. 27
Leisure activities .................................................................................................. 33

4 Equalities and mental health and wellbeing in 2013 .................................. 38
Equalities variables by mental health and wellbeing ........................................... 40

5 Predictors of mental health and wellbeing.................................................. 45
Key drivers of mental health and wellbeing among girls ................................. 46
Key drivers of mental health and wellbeing among boys ................................ 49

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5.16 A number of leisure activities were included in the logistic regression model.
Generally, these were less closely associated with mental health and
wellbeing among girls than their views on school and schoolwork and their
relationship with friends. Hanging around the streets was linked with higher
borderline or abnormal SDQ scores overall, and also closely linked with
scores on the conduct component. Using social networking sites was related
to an increased likelihood of borderline or abnormal scores on emotion and
hyperactivity, but a decreased likelihood of such scores on the peer
problems scale. Doing voluntary work was related to an increased likelihood
of borderline or abnormal scores on emotion and peer problems, but a
decreased likelihood of pro-social borderline or abnormal scores. Full details
of these are provided in the Appendix F.

Key drivers of mental health and wellbeing among boys

5.17 Although the increase in mental health and wellbeing issues among girls
over time has been much more considerable than among boys, the factors
that had the strongest impact on girls also had the largest impact on boys’
mental health and wellbeing, with views on school and schoolwork and
friendships having the strongest impact.

Figur e 5.2 Summary of key drivers of borderline or abnormal mental health and wellbeing
among boys in 2013




5.18 Figure 5.2 highlights the factors that had the biggest impact on the different
SDQ components of mental health and wellbeing among boys (detailed
regression results can be found in Appendix F).

EMOTION CONDUCT
HYPER-

ACTIVITY

SIGNIFICANT FACTOR?

PRESSURED BY
SCHOOLWORK

YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, SOME YES, A LOT

LIKE SCHOOL YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT

TRUANTING YES, SOME YES, A LOT YES, SOME NO YES, SOME YES, A LOT

EXCLUDED YES, SOME YES, A LOT YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, A LOT

FAMILY AFFLUENCE YES, SOME NO YES, SOME YES, A LOT YES, SOME YES, A LOT

EXPECTATIONS NO YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME

NUMBER OF CLOSE
FRIENDS

YES, A LOT NO NO YES, A LOT YES, SOME YES, A LOT

AGES OF FRIENDS YES, SOME YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, A LOT YES, SOME YES, A LOT

EVENINGS SPENT WITH
FRIENDS

NO YES, SOME NO YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME

PARENTAL KNOWLEDGE YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME

HANGING AROUND
STREETS

YES, SOME YES, SOME YES, SOME NO NO YES, SOME

DOING VOLUNTARY
WORK

NO YES, SOME NO YES, SOME YES, A LOT NO

PEER PRO-SOCIAL
SDQ

OVERALL

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5.19 Feelings towards school and schoolwork were closely linked to mental
health and wellbeing among boys. Like girls, feeling pressured by
schoolwork, not liking school, frequent truanting, and exclusion from school
all had a large impact on likelihood to be borderline or abnormal on the
overall SDQ score. All of these, with the exception of truanting from school,
also had a significant impact on all five components of the SDQ score
separately. Truanting was linked to all components of SDQ with the
exception of peer problems.

5.20 As with girls, of all factors included in the model, being pressured by
schoolwork was the strongest predictor of being borderline or abnormal on
the SDQ score overall among boys and significant for all the components
individually. Again, like among girls, not being pressured by schoolwork
among boys meant that they were more likely to score as borderline or
abnormal on the pro-social scale. For the other four components, the
relationship is in the other direction – pressure of schoolwork led to a higher
likelihood of borderline or abnormal scores.

5.21 Among boys, expectations post-school were also related to mental health
and wellbeing. Those that thought that they would do an apprenticeship, go
into Further Education, or start working, were more likely than those who
thought they would go to university to score as borderline or abnormal on
the SDQ overall. Expectations of going into work or FE, compared to going
to university were linked to borderline or abnormal scores on conduct,
hyper-activity, peer problems, and the pro-social component. In contrast,
expectations of undertaking an apprenticeship were related to increased
borderline or abnormal scores on conduct and hyperactivity, but not in
relation to peer problems or the pro-social component.

5.22 Among boys, relationships with friends were also closely linked to mental
health and wellbeing. Having more close friends was strongly correlated to
reduced emotional problems, peer problems and borderline or abnormal
SDQ score overall. Number of friends, however, was not a driver of conduct,
hyper-activity or the pro-social components of SDQ. This is the same as for
girls.

5.23 Ages of friends were linked to all components of mental health and
wellbeing. Those who reported that their friends were the same age as them
were more likely to have good scores across all five components, and those
who said that their friends were of mixed ages were more likely to have
good scores across on emotion, conduct and peer problems. Those who
said that their friends were older than them were more likely to score as
borderline or abnormal. This is broadly the same pattern as girls.

5.24 Overall, as with girls, spending evenings with friends was linked to positive
mental health and wellbeing among boys. It has a positive impact on the
peer, and pro-social components of SDQ. However, in terms of conduct,
spending evenings with friends was correlated to poorer scores.

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Peer Pro-social SDQ overall

Working 0.23 0.08 0.00 1.25 0.17 0.06 0.01 1.19 0.34 0.07 0.00 1.41

Other 0.23 0.06 0.00 1.26 0.28 0.05 0.00 1.32 0.32 0.06 0.00 1.37

Constant 3.06 0.27 0.00 21.30 -0.39 0.23 0.09 0.68 0.89 0.25 0.00 2.43

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