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TitleMaturing Megacities: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation
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Table of Contents
                            Acknowledgments
Contents
Contributors
Abbreviations
Part I: Introduction
	Chapter 1: The Pearl River Delta in Progressive Transformation
		1.1 Introduction
		1.2 The Pearl River Delta: A Maturing Mega-Urban Region
		1.3 Facets of Restructuring in the Maturing Megacity
			1.3.1 Political Restructuring
			1.3.2 Socioeconomic Restructuring
			1.3.3 Physical Restructuring
			1.3.4 The Cases: Guangzhou and Shenzhen
		1.4 The Governance of Restructuring and the Role of Experimental Urban Governance
		1.5 Outline of the Book
			1.5.1 Part II: Transforming into Megacities
			1.5.2 Part III: The Reorientation Toward Urban Regeneration
			1.5.3 Part IV: Economic Upgrading
			1.5.4 Part V: The Evolution of Integrative Governance
			1.5.5 Part VI: Public Open Space Between Appropriation and Marketing
		References
Part II: Transforming into Megacities
	Chapter 2: Second Metamorphosis? Urban Restructuring and Planning Responses in Guangzhou and Shenzhen in the Twenty-First Century
		2.1 Introduction
		2.2 Metamorphosis in the Late Twentieth Century: Establishing a “Socialist Market Economy” with Chinese Characteristics
			2.2.1 Guangzhou: Regaining Its Past Glory?
			2.2.2 Shenzhen: Unleashing Its Youthful Might
		2.3 Challenges of the Twenty-First Century: A Second Metamorphosis Through Planning?
			2.3.1 Intercity Competition
			2.3.2 Guangzhou: Overcoming Land Shortage
			2.3.3 Shenzhen: Limits to Growth
		2.4 Planning Responses
			2.4.1 Guangzhou: Economic Restructuring, Territorial Annexation, and Master Plan in the Making
			2.4.2 Shenzhen: Overcoming Bottlenecks Through Shenzhen 2030 (SZ2030) and a New Master Plan
		2.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 3: The Influence of Regional Planning Administration on Local Development
		3.1 Introduction
		3.2 The Establishment of a Local Growth Coalition
		3.3 Public Concerns About Farmland Erosion in the PRD Resulting from Rapid Land Development
			3.3.1 Environmental Damage Caused by Industrial Expansion in Rural Areas
			3.3.2 Fierce Competition Between Cities
			3.3.3 Implementing a Guangdong Regional Planning Body
			3.3.4 The Modernization Plan for the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone (1996–2010)
			3.3.5 Outline of the Plan for the Reform and Development of the PRD (2008–2020)
		3.4 The Influence of the Regional Planning Administration on Local Development
			3.4.1 Influence of the Modernization Plan for the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone (1996–2010) on Local Development
			3.4.2 Influence of the Outline of the Plan for the Reform and Development of the PRD (2008–2020) on Local Development
				3.4.2.1 Changes of National Macro-Policies
				3.4.2.2 Changes of Local Needs
				3.4.2.3 Relative Comprehensiveness and Thoroughness of Planning
				3.4.2.4 The Influence of the Implementation of the 2008 Plan on Local Development
			3.4.3 The Influence of the Construction of the Pearl River Delta Greenway Network on Shenzhen
			3.4.4 The Influence of the Construction of the Pearl River Delta Intercity Railway Network on Local Development
				3.4.4.1 The Progress of Regional Integration in Facilitating the Transformation of Urban Land Utilization
		3.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 4: Cross-Border Governance: The Merger of Guangzhou and Foshan
		4.1 Introduction
		4.2 Essential Similarities Between Cross-Border Regions in the West and Merging Cross-Border Regions in China
			4.2.1 Cross-Border Regions in the West
				4.2.1.1 The Integration of the States of Berlin and Brandenburg in Germany
				4.2.1.2 Cooperation of New York and the New Jersey Port
			4.2.2 Merging Cross-Border Regions in China
		4.3 Analysis of the Governance Structure of Guangzhou-Foshan Merging Region
			4.3.1 Guangzhou-Foshan Subway
				4.3.1.1 Reaching Agreements
				4.3.1.2 Building Promotion Channels
			4.3.2 Haiyi Bridge
				4.3.2.1 Reaching Agreements (Fig.  4.2)
				4.3.2.2 Building Promotion Channels
			4.3.3 Drawing Water from Xijiang Area in Foshan
				4.3.3.1 Reaching Agreements
				4.3.3.2 Building Promotion Channels
		4.4 Comparative Studies on Cross-Border Governance of Merging Regions in China and Cross-Border Governance in Europe
			4.4.1 Structural Characteristics of Cross-Border Governance of Merging Regions
			4.4.2 Structural Features of Cross-Border Governance in the West
		4.5 Discussions and Summary
		References
Part III: The Reorientation Toward Urban Regeneration
	Chapter 5: Three Olds: Experimental Urban Restructuring with Chinese Characteristics, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in Comparison
		5.1 Introduction
		5.2 “Three Olds”: Definition and Principles
			5.2.1 Primary Strategies and Key Elements
			5.2.2 Main Challenges of Three Olds Restructuring
		5.3 Main Objectives of “Three Olds” Restructuring
		5.4 Comparison Between Guangzhou and Shenzhen Urbanized Village Redevelopment Characteristics
		5.5 Institutional Characteristics and Responsibilities Concerning “Three Olds” Implementation
		5.6 Major Policy Breakthroughs
		5.7 Conclusion: “Three Olds” Restructuring as Indicator for a Maturing Megacity
		References
	Chapter 6: Examining China’s Urban Redevelopment: Land Types, Targeted Policies, and Public Participation
		6.1 Introduction
		6.2 Land-Centered and Growth-Led Urban Redevelopment in China
		6.3 Land Types, Targeted Policies, and Public Participation
			6.3.1 Former Industrial Land
			6.3.2 Dilapidated Residential Areas
			6.3.3 Existing Urbanized Villages
		6.4 Discussions and Conclusions
		References
Part IV: Economic Upgrading
	Chapter 7: Maturing Governance Over Time: Groping for Economic Upgrading in Guangzhou’s Zhongda Cloth Market
		7.1 Introduction
		7.2 ZDCM in Its Broad Structural Context
		7.3 Introduction of ZDCM
		7.4 Guangzhou City and Haizhu District
		7.5 Zhongda Cloth Market’s Development Over Time
			7.5.1 Phase One: Unregulated Growth (1988–1996)
			7.5.2 Phase Two: Unstructured Groping (1996–2000)
			7.5.3 Phase Three: Experimental Groping (2000–2004)
			7.5.4 Phase Four: Differentiated Groping (2004–2010)
			7.5.5 Phase Five: Maturing (Since 2010)
		7.6 Synopsis
		References
	Chapter 8: Formal and Informal Economies in Guangzhou’s Zhongda Cloth Market
		8.1 Introduction
		8.2 Research Objective, Research Topic, and Spatial, Economic, and Labor Market Background
			8.2.1 Location of ZDCM
			8.2.2 Spatial Structure in ZDCM and Its Periphery
			8.2.3 Industry Distribution and Employee Variety in Migrant Employment
			8.2.4 Informal Employees in Clothing Factories and Urbanized Villages
			8.2.5 Research Topics
			8.2.6 Economic Geography and Labor Market Background of ZDCM
		8.3 Formal and Informal Economies in the ZDCM
			8.3.1 Formal/Informal Economies, Formal/Informal Employment: Clarification on Concepts and Theories
			8.3.2 Formal and Informal Economies, Formal and Informal Employment in the ZDCM
		8.4 Composition of Formal Economies
		8.5 Composition of Informal Economies
		8.6 Symbiosis and Coexistence of Formal and Informal Economies
			8.6.1 Economic Policies and Market Supervision of the Local Government
			8.6.2 Informal Characteristics of Formal Economies
			8.6.3 “Formal” Characteristics of Informal Economies “Embedded” in Formal Economies
			8.6.4 Symbiosis and Coexistence of Formal and Informal Economies
		8.7 Inversion and Flow Between Formal and Informal Economies
			8.7.1 Formalization of Informal Economies
			8.7.2 Informalization of Formal Economies
			8.7.3 Flow Between Formal and Informal Employment
		8.8 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 9: Regeneration of Derelict Industrial Sites in Guangzhou and Shenzhen
		9.1 Introduction
		9.2 The Development of Land-Use Policies and Regeneration Practices Concerning the Restructuring of Obsolete Industrial Areas
			9.2.1 Background
			9.2.2 Regeneration of Derelict Manufacturing Sites Under the “Three Olds” Framework
			9.2.3 Redevelopment Modes for Old Factories
		9.3 The Range of Redevelopment Strategies for Obsolete Manufacturing Sites and Industrial Zones
			9.3.1 Background: Conventional Redevelopment Approaches
			9.3.2 Functional Diversification: Creative Parks and Beyond
			9.3.3 Economic Restructuring on Former Manufacturing Sites: On the Way Toward “Made in China”?
			9.3.4 Facets of Adaptive Reuse: Heritage Conservation, Design Orientation, and Identity Formation
			9.3.5 The Production of Location: Creative Parks as Parts of Strategic Urban Development
		9.4 Conclusion
		References
Part V: The Evolution of Integrative Governance
	Chapter 10: Gaming and Decision-Making: Urbanized Village Redevelopment in Guangzhou
		10.1 Introduction
			10.1.1 History of Urbanized Village Redevelopment in Guangzhou
		10.2 Introduction and Evaluation of Policies Concerning the Redevelopment of Urbanized Villages
			10.2.1 Policy Changes for the Redevelopment of Urbanized Villages in Guangzhou
			10.2.2 Features of Policies Concerning the Redevelopment of Urbanized Village
			10.2.3 Evaluation of Policies Concerning Urbanized Village Redevelopment
		10.3 Stakeholders in the Decision-Making Process
			10.3.1 Local Governments
				10.3.1.1 The Role of Levels of Government
				10.3.1.2 Local Governments
			10.3.2 Urbanized Villages
				10.3.2.1 Villagers
				10.3.2.2 Village Joint-Stock Companies
				10.3.2.3 Village Heads
			10.3.3 Developers
		10.4 The Gaming of the Interests Among the Three Stakeholders and Its Impact on Levels of Government Decisions
			10.4.1 Changes of the Gaming Among the Three Stakeholders: The Case Study of the Asian Games as a Catalyst in the Process of Redevelopment
			10.4.2 Impact of the Gaming Among the Three Stakeholders on Government Decision
				10.4.2.1 Impact of the Gaming During the Experimental Stage (Before 2007)
				10.4.2.2 Impact of the Gaming Among the Three Stakeholders on Levels of Government Decisions at the Stage of the Asian Games (from 2007 to November 2010)
				10.4.2.3 Impact of the Gaming Among the Three Stakeholders on Governmental Decisions at the Stage After the Asian Games (from November 2010 Until Now)
		10.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 11: Villagers’ Participation in Mega-Urban Upgrading. Liede Village: Guangzhou’s Pioneer
		11.1 Introduction
		11.2 Liede Village: A Pioneer in Urban Reconstruction
		11.3 The Stages of Participation in Liede’s Reconstruction Process
			11.3.1 First Stage: The Start of the Reconstruction of Liede Village
			11.3.2 Second Stage: Making and Approving the Compensation Plan
			11.3.3 Third Stage: Compilation of the Interim Resettlement Plan
			11.3.4 Fourth Stage: Compilation of the Planning and Design
		11.4 Modes of Participation in Liede’s Reconstruction Process
			11.4.1 Roles of the Different Stakeholders Involved
			11.4.2 Villagers’ Participation in the Reconstruction
				11.4.2.1 Villagers’ Formal Passive Participation
				11.4.2.2 Villagers’ Informal Active Participation
		11.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 12: Elite Vision Before People: State Entrepreneurialism and the Limits of Participation
		12.1 Introduction
		12.2 China’s New Urbanism and Public Participation
		12.3 Enning Road Redevelopment and the Elite Vision
		12.4 Permanent Displacement of Local Residents
		12.5 Residents’ Challenge to the Local Government Plans
		12.6 Concluding Discussion
		References
Part VI: Public Open Space Between Appropriation and Marketing
	Chapter 13: Parks as Soft Location Factors
		13.1 Shenzhen’s Urban Development
		13.2 Stages of Park Development in Shenzhen
			13.2.1 Parks Before the Foundation of Shenzhen City
			13.2.2 Establishment of City Parks Concerning Gardening and Greening
			13.2.3 The Integration of Parks into the System of Urban Green Space
			13.2.4 Parks for the Improvement of the Living Environment and Public Spaces
		13.3 Significant Parks and Their Roles in Shenzhen’s Urban Development
			13.3.1 Upgrading of the Tourism Industry: Theme Parks
			13.3.2 Becoming a Garden City: Nature-/Ecology-Oriented Parks in Shenzhen
				13.3.2.1 Cluster Greenbelt: Central Park
				13.3.2.2 Mountain Parks in Shenzhen SEZ
				13.3.2.3 Coastal Ecological Park
			13.3.3 Improving Urban Environment for Outdoor Activities: Suburban Landscape Parks
				13.3.3.1 Forest Outskirts Parks
				13.3.3.2 Coastal Parks
			13.3.4 Improving the Living Environment and Local Recreation: Community Parks
		13.4 Special Functions of Comprehensive Parks in Shenzhen
			13.4.1 For Urban Propaganda
			13.4.2 For Transmission of Popular Science and Cultural Education
			13.4.3 For Spontaneous Collective Daily Training and Sport by Urban Residents
			13.4.4 For General Emergency Shelter
		13.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 14: The Role of Public Space in the Upgrading of Manufacturing Sites
		14.1 Preface
		14.2 Development Process of the Regeneration of the Old Manufacturing Sites and Their Distribution in Shenzhen
		14.3 Analysis of the Development Background of the Creative Industry Sites in Shenzhen
		14.4 Case Studies
			14.4.1 OCT LOFT in the Overseas Chinese Town (OCT)
				14.4.1.1 Geographical Advantages
				14.4.1.2 Regeneration Progress
				14.4.1.3 Plans and Approaches for Regeneration
				14.4.1.4 The Introduction of Modern Landscape Design Elements
				14.4.1.5 Regeneration Effects
			14.4.2 Shenzhen “City of Design” Creative Design Industrial Estate
				14.4.2.1 Geographical Advantages
				14.4.2.2 Regeneration Process
				14.4.2.3 Plans and Approaches for Regeneration
				14.4.2.4 The Introduction of Modern Landscape Design Elements
				14.4.2.5 Regeneration Effects
			14.4.3 Nanhaiyiku Creative Park
				14.4.3.1 Geographical Advantages
				14.4.3.2 Regeneration Process
				14.4.3.3 Plans and Approaches for Regeneration
				14.4.3.4 The Introduction of Modern Landscape Design Elements
				14.4.3.5 Regeneration Effects
		14.5 Conclusion
		References
	Chapter 15: The Role of Public Space in the Upgrading of Urbanized Villages
		15.1 Introduction
		15.2 Subareas in the Course of Development of UVs
		15.3 (Public) Open Space in China
		15.4 Space Production Processes and Their Effects on the Urban and Social Fabric: Formal Constraints and Informal Possibilities in UVs
		15.5 Two Villages, One UV: The Case Study Areas
		15.6 Subareas as Arenas of Space Production
		15.7 Discussion
			15.7.1 Informality = Ingenuity?
			15.7.2 Urban Acupuncture as an Approach for Urban Renewal?
		15.8 Prospects
		References
Part VII: Conclusion
	Chapter 16: Maturing Megacities: Lessons from the Pearl River Delta Experiences
		16.1 Introduction
		16.2 The Mega-urban Arena of Maturing Stakeholder Relationships
		16.3 Maturing Mega-urban Practices and Changing Policy Answers on Different Spatial Scales
		16.4 Maturing Political Culture
			16.4.1 Mega-events = Mega-challenges
		16.5 Maturing Institutional Setting
		16.6 Conclusion
		Reference
About the Authors
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research

Maturing
Megacities

Uwe Altrock
Sonia Schoon Editors

The Pearl River Delta in Progressive
Transformation

Page 2

Maturing Megacities

Page 193

187

8.7.3 Flow Between Formal and Informal Employment

It should be pointed out the labor force fl oats frequently between formal and infor-
mal economies. This is a basic feature of domestic migrant workers in China. In
ZDCM migrant workers commonly and continually “freely” fl ow in between for-
mal and informal economies.

It is common for migrant workers to fl oat from formal employment to informal
employment. From interviews with 300 informal employees in ZDCM, it could be
found out that, before they came to this place, the majority of them used to work
in manufacturing, construction, transportation, business, service and entertainment
industries that are registered by the Administration for Industry and Commerce.
Generally, nearly all their working places were cities and districts of advanced
industries nationwide, such as in the Yangzi River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and cit-
ies in North China, Southwest, and Northwest.

Some workers in small unregistered clothing factories described the working
conditions of their old jobs in some large manufacturing factories. Their salary was
extremely low. What was worse, management was extremely strict. They worked
under absolute control without any freedom during working hours. The heads of
production lines were said to often abuse power and insult them.

On the contrary, even though working hours are long in the small factories of the
ZDCM, they earn a high salary and enjoy comparatively free working conditions during
the working hours; in short, they could also go out to run their own errands. Generally,
none of them was willing to go back to their previous job in large factories.

Under what conditions will the employees in those small factories or shops of
informal economies likely fl oat to formal economies? Just as formalization of
informal economies may show in both active and passive ways, informal employ-
ment of migrant workers is possibly inverted into formal employment in both
active and passive ways.

Active fl oating is the direct fl ow from informal employment to employment-
giving units of formal economies, such as shifting to work in large registered com-
panies. However, past research reports show that it took up only a small proportion
(Wan 2008 ). Once the migrant workers are engaged in informal employment, they
fi nd it a free job with an income that is not too low. As a result, they seldom return
to formal employment, except for some particular personal reasons. The other active
fl oating to formal employment is realized through “informal employment—self-
employment—investment in setting up factories or shops—registration in the
administration department of the government.” This type of fl oating to formal econ-
omies is actually a move from employee to employer. But for a normal migrant
worker, this is very rare.

Passive fl oating is the fl ow from informal employment to formal employment
under the infl uence of the policies of the local government, which urge informal
economies to become formal with proper registration and supervision. The labor
relations are under the supervision of the government. Hence, migrant workers will

8 Formal and Informal Economies in Guangzhou’s Zhongda Cloth Market

Page 194

188

“fi nish” the fl oating to formal employment. Another possible way is that the infor-
mal employees have to leave for a fresh start due to the massive evacuation of infor-
mal proprietors from a certain area, as they cannot afford the rising rent after urban
redevelopment.

8.8 Conclusion

The close interaction between formal and informal economies—formal employment
and informal employment, substitution, expansion, interdependence, embedding,
sharing of space, reciprocal supply and demand, closely linked profi t chains, and
exchange between them—makes the ZDCM a complete ecological system in which
formal economy and informal economy are in symbiosis and coexist. Likewise, it is
this interaction that makes the ZDCM display stronger vitality, produce bigger indus-
trial scale, and embrace expanding physical space.

A city is by nature an outcome of a concentration of economy and people. In
an era of globalization, any cluster of specialized industries in a certain geo-
graphical area not only accelerates this concentration, but it expands its scale,
and due to a certain influence or a certain design and urge (especially urge by
investment), some areas are prone to form a geographical cluster of a special-
ized industry.

ZDCM, as an economic cluster of textile and clothing industry, is the very
example. In the beginning, ZDCM developed out of a laissez-faire and spontane-
ous economy. Later on, intervention by the government pushed it to grow larger
in scale. Based on the current tendency, it can be predicted that it will continue
to grow larger and larger. Such a pattern has become rather common in Guangzhou
and even the entire Pearl River Delta. It is a pattern in which formal economy and
informal economy mingle and achieve respective advancement quite freely in the
same area.

Eventually, that area develops into a cluster of a specialized industry.
Afterward, governments exert interventions on that area in their attempt to
advance local specialized industries with more energy and more political power.
For example, they encourage investment, introduce cheaper labor, and take
advantage of other preferential policies such as land (rent), tax, and the like. In
this way, Guangzhou and the whole PRD have rapidly developed into megacities
within the last two decades.

In the context of globalization, the global fi nancial crisis, increasing domestic
labor cost and the demand to strengthen local competiveness right before the 16th
Asian Games in 2010, the Guangdong Provincial Government proposed the policies
of “open the cages and change the birds” ( teng long huan niao ), “withdraw the sec-
ond and promote the third industry” ( tui er jin san ) , and the Guangzhou Municipal
Government further proposed the Three Olds Redevelopment ( san jiu gaizao ) pol-
icy. All these policies have been implemented and local governments attempt to
achieve urban regeneration and industrial upgrading to higher levels. They will

Wan X.

Page 386

388

Transformation , 3–23, 35, 46, 47, 62, 66,
68, 72, 76–81, 84, 85, 113, 124, 143,
152, 158, 185, 202, 208, 211, 217, 225,
245, 248, 249, 264, 265, 272, 279,
290–292, 311, 312, 314, 320, 331,
332, 339, 340, 344, 347–349, 363,
364, 368, 370

Transition , 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 20, 52, 124, 136,
143, 145, 147, 182, 336–338, 344, 347,
351, 352, 362, 370

Transportation , 19, 34, 47, 48, 53, 63, 64, 67,
73–75, 77, 78, 81, 91, 95, 96, 108, 129,
148, 150, 166, 172, 174, 176, 177, 179,
180, 183, 184, 187, 363, 364

Transportation hub , 30, 48
Transportation infrastructure , 19
Tui er jin san , 117, 128–130, 188, 194, 195
Twin-city , 20, 50
Two Axes and Seven Regions , 152

U
Unifi cation , 85
Universiade , 113, 300, 309, 368
University Town , 21, 44, 364
Unregistered enterprise , 170, 171
Unregulated growth , 147–148, 155, 156
Upgrading , 5–8, 10–14, 16, 19–23, 38, 50,

65, 70–73, 81, 106, 108, 117–119,
141–159, 178, 182, 186, 188, 192, 194,
196, 200, 207, 213, 217, 247–265, 293,
311–333, 335–353, 360–362, 364–368

Upgrading of public space , 311–333, 335–353
Upward accountability , 270
Urban acupuncture , 351–353
Urban administration , 153, 155, 177, 362
Urban fabric , 5, 11, 118, 199, 248, 249
Urban governance , 5, 6, 9, 14–19, 22, 85, 106,

118, 123, 142, 144, 157, 158, 268, 303,
353, 360, 369

Urban interface , 341, 342
Urbanism , 268–270, 350, 352
Urbanized village , 8, 106, 127, 146, 166, 196,

221, 248, 290, 335, 364
Urbanized Village Redevelopment Working

Offi ce , 244
Urbanized villagers , 155, 224, 263
Urban land , 81, 106, 124, 132, 136, 179, 192,

194, 195, 264, 337
Urban land utilization , 78–81
Urban living environment , 108, 292, 308, 309
Urban management , 43, 56, 113, 115, 322, 360
Urban periphery , 145
Urban pioneer , 14, 23, 312, 352

Urban planners , 101, 112, 155, 156, 159, 260,
307, 308, 351

Urban planning , 19, 21, 34, 52, 55, 58, 77–80,
112, 114–116, 153, 180, 197, 216, 239,
248, 269, 281, 282, 290–292, 298, 299,
301, 305, 307, 308, 312, 313, 316, 338,
339, 349–351, 353, 364, 367

Urban Planning, Land and Resources
Commission , 307, 309

Urban poor , 132
Urban regeneration measures , 312
Urban regeneration offi ce , 12, 225
Urban regeneration unit , 114
Urban-rural , 43, 47–49, 66, 264, 364
Urban village , 43, 50, 136, 231–234, 303, 337

V
Village , 8, 36, 62, 92, 106, 124, 143, 164, 195,

221, 248, 273, 290, 335, 364
Village committee , 41, 113, 133, 134, 136,

143, 249, 254–256, 340
Village head , 231–234, 238, 249
Village in the city , 36, 43, 53, 273
Villagers’ participation , 247–265
Villages in the park , 107
Vision , 9, 12, 22, 35, 37, 48, 65, 81, 93, 125,

136, 198, 208, 267–282, 360, 361, 364
Vulnerability , 84

W
Walking ghost , 177
Warehouse , 8, 11, 14, 21, 107, 129, 130, 148,

168, 176, 182, 183, 206, 208, 210, 211,
213, 215, 315

Water consumption , 43, 52
Waterfront development , 7
Waterfront parks , 74
Water pipes , 98, 177
Water resources , 53, 69, 95, 97, 98, 308
Welfare , 48, 52, 125, 134, 197, 302, 360, 362
Wenban-Smith, A. , 85
West River , 92
Wetland , 42, 43, 49, 53, 301
Wharf , 129
Wholesale mall , 18, 146, 152, 153, 166, 172
Wholesale market , 142, 145, 146, 152, 154,

165, 173–175, 186
Window of Guangzhou’s foreign business and

trade , 146
Window of the World , 295
Win-win , 91, 120, 241, 244
Working conditions , 21, 171, 187

Index

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389

World-class city region , 53
World Factory , 81
Worls Trade Organization , 37
Woshoulou , 148, 248
Wuyang/Honda Factory , 211, 212
Wu zhang’ai xiangyou , 67

X
Xiamen , 36, 39, 40
Xiancun , 223, 264
Xianhu Botanical Park , 292
Xiaogang , 223, 228
Xiaogang Village , 223
Xiaoping , 64, 143, 228, 236, 242–243,

304, 305
Xiaoxintang , 223
Xiasha Village , 16
XIC See Xinyi International Club (XIC)
Xiguan culture , 270
Xijiang Area , 84, 97–98
Xincun , 343, 344, 347, 348, 350, 351
Xintiandi , 133, 272–274, 277, 279, 281
Xinyi International Club (XIC) , 202, 203, 208,

215, 216

Y
Yangcheng Motor Factory , 239
Yangji , 223, 264
Yangzi , 40, 174, 187
Yantian Port , 37
Yi cun yi ce , 117, 227
Yijing Road , 152, 153
Yi xiaoshi jiaotong quan , 75

You dian dao mian , 144
Yuangangcun , 343, 344, 347
Yuanxi , 15
Yuanzhongcun , 107
Yuexiu , 12, 30, 46, 108, 145, 269
Yunong , 119

Z
Zengcheng , 30
Zhaoqing , 64, 66, 67, 71, 73, 363
Zhejiang , 149, 168
Zhongda Business Circle , 164
Zhongda Cloth Market , 21, 141–159,

163–189, 207, 364
Zhongda Textile Trade and Garments Industry

District , 164
Zhongguo tese , 112
Zhongshan , 64, 76, 199, 291, 363
Zhongshan Park , 291
Zhongshan University , 199
Zhuhai , 36, 39, 64, 65, 68, 71, 72, 75, 76, 145
Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen metropolitan

area , 68, 71, 74
Zhujiang Brewery , 205, 207, 213
Zhujiang International Textile City , 153
Zhujiang New Town , 21, 196, 250, 252
Zone , 6, 20, 35, 36, 39, 40, 44, 45, 48–51,

53, 64–65, 68–69, 71, 74, 79, 107,
108, 115, 128, 146, 150, 167, 194,
196, 198, 202, 215, 242, 269, 279,
306, 322, 326, 338, 344, 350, 351,
363, 364, 366

Zoning , 57, 136, 192, 193, 200
Zou gui , 177

Index

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