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TitleManagement of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Handbook , Volume 1 - Revision I
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LanguageEnglish
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Page 2

Preface


The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements published

Report No. 65 on Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with

Radionuclides in 1980. This report has served as a major resource for responders to

accidents and incidents involving human contamination by radionuclides. During the last

three decades a greater understanding has been achieved on the possible health effects in,

and strategies for the immediate and late management of, contaminated individuals.



In recent years, the range of situations in which contamination can occur has

increased with the growing concern worldwide regarding possible incidents of nuclear

and radiological terrorism. At the time of publication of NCRP Report No. 65, the main

concern was the possible contamination of individuals working at, or living near, a

nuclear reactor facility. This concern has now expanded into the broader public domain

and involves a greater range of radionuclides than those of greatest concern in an incident

involving nuclear reactor operations or a reactor accident.



This Report therefore has been significantly extended beyond the set of

radionuclides that were considered in Report No. 65, and contains recommendations on

the management of persons contaminated by many radionuclides of concern in potential

acts of nuclear or radiological terrorism. It also provides information based on advances

since the 1970s in methods for decontamination and the decorporation of radionuclides in

accidentally or deliberately contaminated persons. For example, the Report includes

updated data and biokinetic and dosimetric models of organ doses, total-body and organ

retention values, and excretion rates of radionuclides. Publications of the International

Commission on Radiological Protection over the past three decades have provided

valuable information that is utilized in this Report.



The Report contains four major sections: (1) Part A contains a quick reference

information needed by an emergency responder to an act of radionuclide contamination,

and is an update of the “yellow book” section of Report No. 65; (2) Part B contains a set

of recommendations on onsite and pre-hospital actions that should be taken by

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Table 13.14—Calculated 50 y effective dose and equivalent doses (Sv Bq–1) to tissues of a 1

worker following inhalation of a moderately soluble form of 252Cf (Type M, AMAD = 5 µm). A 2

radiation weighting factor of 20 is applied to alpha radiation. 3

4

5

Lung Bone Surface Red Marrow Liver Effective Dose

3.4E–05 2.9E–04 1.9E–05 1.2E–05 1.1E–05

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1

Age-specific dose coefficients are given in Table 13.15 for the case of inhalation of a 2

moderately soluble form of 252Cf of particle size 1 µm (AMAD). Also listed are model 3

predictions of tissue retention and urinary excretion of 252Cf at selected times. The assumed 4

exposure conditions are the generic conditions applied by the ICRP in derivation of dose 5

coefficients for members of the public, including the particle size and average breathing rates 6

over 24 h. The age-independent systemic biokinetic model for californium described above and 7

the ICRP’s respiratory model with age-specific deposition fractions (ICRP, 1994) are applied. 8

The assumed gastrointestinal uptake fractions are 5 10–3 for infants and 5 10–4 for age 1 y or 9

greater (ICRP, 1996). 10

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